HDFS notes 5
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Notes 2/2-2/4 Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development o Psychosocial- our psyche interacts w/social forces to form our personality o Aspects of Lifespan Perspective present: o Contextualism o Lifelong development o Plasticity o Multidimensionality o Multidirectionality o A particular aspect of personality will emerge b/c of the capacities (skills, etc.) of the person and the demands of the environment (what is expected from parents, society, etc.) interact in a certain way o Psychosocial crisis- unique problem/task we are confronted with during a specific period of life o We will resolve this crisis either positively or negatively o Once a resolution of the crisis is reached, it becomes part of our personality AND we develop a particular orientation toward life (how we take on the world) Stages of Psychosocial Development 1. Trust v. Mistrust: birth-18 months o Can I trust? o Is the world a safe place? o Trust- warm, responsive consistent caregiving o You can’t spoil a baby o Mistrust- unresponsive, harsh, neglectful, abusive 2. Autonomy v. Shame/doubt: 18 months- 3 yr. o Can I do it? o Autonomy- ability to do things for yourself o Increase of a child’s own exploration and independence o Child needs patience and encouragement o Doesn’t need belittling, discouragement 3. Initiative v. Guilt: 4-5 yr. o What can I do? o After they know they can do it, what can they do? o Curiosity, free play (part of emotional brain) o Must allow child to try 4. Industry v. Inferiority: 6-10 yr. o Can I keep trying? o Industry- capacity to try, problem solve, and work o Perseverance (biggest measurer of success) o Not afraid to fail b/c they were never made to feel bad for failing Notes 2/2-2/4 o Teachers play a big role 5. Identity v. Role Confusion: 11-22 yr. o Who am I? o Where do I belong? o What do I believe? o Family, friends, teachers, coaches, mentors all contribute (people who mean most to you) 6. Intimacy v. Isolation: 22-35 yr. o How do I love? o How do I want to be loved? o What do relationships mean to me? o Applies to romantic relationships and friendships o Commitment 7. Generativity v. Self-Absorption: 35-65 yr. (middle adulthood) o What am I doing with my life? o What am I giving back/accomplishing/creating for the community? o What will outlive me? (Career accomplishments, ideas, kids) o As long as you feel generative about something, that thing makes you generative 8. Integrity v. Despair: 65-85 yr. (old age) o How have I lived my life? o Looking back o Finding the meaning in one’s life o Going within yourself 9. Hope/Faith v. Despair: 90 and Up (old old age) o Transcendence- being ready to go/move on Top 5 regrets of the dying o Research from Hospice nurses; From all ages 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I’d stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish I had let myself be happier. Characteristics of Psychosocial Crisis o Our attention is placed on a particular task o That task is at the forefront o Doesn’t mean you’re not jumping from task to task o The way in which we resolve the problem/task/crisis at each stage will have an effect on subsequent stages o Resolution is NOT an all or nothing matter o Crisis is NOT a time of disaster Notes 2/2-2/4 o Resolution can be challenged or shaken at any time in later development, for better or for worse o Resolution of each crisis at each stage leaves us with qualities that become part of our personality “We do not believe what we see; we see what we believe.” – Molly Countermine Trust v. Mistrust o Trust- an appraisal of another’s dependability and genuineness o For infants: trust is a state of feeling confident that they are valued and that their needs will be met o Fostered in infancy; established by 18 months o Fostered through day-to-day interactions of infants and caregivers o We are born assuming our needs will be met Trust Hope Optimism Courage Things are We We’re We get bad at hope optimisti courag first, but someon c that we e to try we trust e will can trust things help people Developing trust o Biologically, we are programmed to be wary of harsh stimuli o Socially, we are or are not protected from harsh stimuli by caregivers o Psychologically, we learn that the world is generally safe or not safe o Infants’ distress often exceeds their capacity to sooth themselves o Ability of the caregiver to soothe the infant is central to developing trust and an attachment to the caregiver “There is no such thing as a baby; there is only a baby and someone else,” – Donald Winnicott 2 components found in social interaction: 1. Matching- presence of same/similar behaviors (cooing, smiling, upsetness) 2. Synchrony- movement from one emotional state to another in a fluid pattern Notes 2/2-2/4 o These become more coordinated over time o As time goes by, mother and baby both learn to regulate the amount of time that passes between expression of a need and satisfying the need o Research: babies whose mothers responded quickly and consistently to their cries in the first few months cried less in later months Attachment o The strong emotional bond that children form with primary caregivers (typically mother) o It’s an intense emotional relationship that emerges over time o We are not born attached John Bowlby’s attachment theory: o Two factors that babies (human and animal) need for survival: 1. Protection Babies need to keep caregivers nearby Behaviors such as crying, clinging, vocalizing, smiling They draw us in with these so we protect them Survival for humans depends on protection Other people are infants’ primary environment 2. Exploration Learning independence is necessary for surviving and thriving We learn to be individual by exploring and manipulating our environment o These two factors are at odds. How do we balance them? Secure Base o The way babies reconcile the need to be protected (staying close to mom) and the need to explore (moving away from mom) o Babies learn they can use their parent as their secure base when their parent is warm, response, and sensitive Attachment Security 1. Security of infant attachment will be determined by the quality of early caregiving 2. Security of early attachment will effect the child’s later relationships Notes 2/2-2/4 Four Phases of Attachment 1. Birth - 2 months o Babies attach to any adult 2. 3 – 6 months o Babies begin to direct attachment to primary caregivers 3. 7 – 24 months o Babies are clearly attached to primary caregivers 4. 24 months and on o Children become comfortable with receiving care from familiar others Measuring Attachment: The Strange Situation (Ainsworth) 1. Observer shows caregiver and child into lab, then leaves 2. Caregiver sits and watches child play 3. Stranger enters, silent at first, then talks to caregiver, then interacts w/child. Caregiver leaves room 4. First separation. Stranger tries to interact/comfort 5. First reunion. Caregiver attempts to comfort, stranger leaves. Caregiver leaves again 6. Second separation. Child alone in room 7. Stranger enters and tries to comfort 8. Second reunion. Caregiver attempts to comfort child. Stranger leaves ***Reunion is what’s important
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