BIOL 1030 Lecture Notes 2/2 & 2/4
BIOL 1030 Lecture Notes 2/2 & 2/4 BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
• Phylum Ciliophora -- ciliates o Pellicle is cell membrane with alveoli o Oral groove, cytostome, cytopharynx, food vacuole, cytoproct – for digestions o Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation (It pumps out water.) o Some ciliates have reduced ciliature and/or modified cilia o Membranelles are rows of cilia fused to form sheet-like structures • Cilia and flagella have similar internal structure o 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules o 9 fused pairs of microtubules on the outside of a cylinder plus 2 unfused microtubules in the center o Dynein “arms” attached to the microtubules serve as the molecular motors o Flagella (longer and less numerous) undulate, while cilia (shorter and usually more numerous) move in an oar-like fashion • Phylum Bacillariophyta – diatoms o The cell wall is a 2 part, silicious frustule o One valve fits inside the other o When cells divide, each daughter cell forms a new valve to fit inside the old one, so some cells are smaller o They get smaller and smaller until, at 1/3 the original size, they reproduce sexually and return to full size o These unusual algae (photosynthetic) occurred in large numbers in the past (blooms) in places where their remnant frustules formed layers ofdiatomaceous earth (now used as water filters and polishing compounds, including tooth paste • Phylum Phaeophyta – brown algae o Marine algae o Often very large like kelp and sargassum o Have simple, multicellular form o They have zones of growth, called meristems • Phylum Rhodophyta – red algae o Deep water marine macroalgae o Pigments are suitable for deep water o Some are edible and provide useful products like carrageenan (used in ice cream), nori, and agar • Ameboid protozoa o Amebas – with and without tests (shell-like structures) o Pseudopods are used for movement and phagocytosis o Lobopodia are blunt and lobe-like o Pseudopod movement involves a thick ectoplasm and a thin, flowing endoplasm o Cytoskeletons break down and rebuild as one converts to the other • Phylum Gymnamoeba o “naked” amoebae, without tests o some are parasitic and some are free living • phylum Radiolaria o axopodia and silicious test with perforations o axopodia are pseudopods reinforced with microtubules – stiff and needle-like • phylum Foraminifera o reticulopodia and chambered, calcareous tests o reticulopodia are threadlike and branching pseudopods o ancient oozes of foraminifera formed the White Cliffs of Dover and pink sands of Bermuda. Some of them are the largest protists ever • phylum Myxomycota – plasmodial slime molds o the body form is a plasmodium – a multi-nucleate mass of protoplasm o complex life cycles include spore formation • phylum Chlorophyta – green algae o cell walls and chloroplasts o solitary or colonial • phylum Choanoflagellata o collar cells adapted for filter-feeding collar of microvilli and a single flagellum o these protists are more closely related to Animalia than any other group. They are considered to be a sister group of kingdom Animalia Plants • the first plants had a gametophyte dominated life cycle • Bryophytes o Composed of 3 phyla = superphylum o Gametophyte dominated life cycle o No vascular tissue (and therefore no true organs) o Small size o Sperm that must be dispersed in water o Restricted to moist habitats o Phylum Bryophyta – true mosses o Phylum Hepatophyta – the liverworts o Phylum Anthocerophyta – the hornworts • Phylum Bryophyta o Sporophyte is attached to and dependent on the gametophyte o The haploid (gametophyte) generation starts with a meiospore that sprouts into protonema (the first state of the gametophyte). It soon develops leafy shoots and forms a mature gametophyte o Gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis o Gametes are produced in a gamete container called a gametangium o Male gametangia are called antheridia – often in splash cup with aids in sperm dispersal o Female gametangia are called archegonia which contain a single egg or ovum o Fertilized egg in the archegonium grows into the diploid sporophyte – still attached to gametophyte o Seta and capsule o Capsule has spores formed by meiosis o Peristome teeth – aid spores in dispersal; hygroscopic o Operculum and calyptra cover the opening of the capsule o Calyptra is a remnant of the archegonium • Phylum Hepatophyta – liverworts o Gametophyte is a simple sheet-like structure called a thallus; lobed and dichotomously branches o Gemma cups –for asexual reproduction – can disperse and grow into a new thallus o Antheridia are born on antheridiophores o Archegonia are born on archegoniophores o Sporophytes develop from the fertilized egg within the archegonium, are short, and hang upside down o Spores are aided in dispersal by hygroscopic elaters • Phylum Anthocerophyta – hornworts o The gametophyte is a simple thallus and the sporophyte, attached and dependent on the gametophyte, is a horn-shaped structure o Spores are produced by meiosis within the sporophyte o Sporophytes dehisces (split) to release the meiospores when mature 2/4 • Sporophytes are always diploid • Isomorphic – when gametophyte and sporophyte are indistinguishable • Sexual reproduction – 2n à n • Sporic Meiosis: o 2n à n : meiosis, meiospores o n à 2n : syngamy, gametes produced by mitosis o 2n à 2n : plant that produces spores (sporophytes) o n à n : plant that produces gametes (gametophytes) o ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS • Bryophytes – nonvascular o 3 phyla § p. Bryophyta – true mosses § p. Hepatophyta – liverworts § p. Anthocerophyta -- hornworts o Gametophytes very dependent on water § Sperm dispersal § Nonvascular – “amphibian” o Quasiterrestrial o Small plants – K. Plantae o Gametophyte is the smallest generation • Gametophyte gen. (n)
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