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SCOM 121 Notes Week 4

by: Kira Gavalakis

SCOM 121 Notes Week 4 SCOM 121 0003

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes are not on the study guide but will be needed for when we have our final exam. Keep them on hand!
Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations
Lori Britt
Class Notes
SCOM, Social Communications, Comm, Com, Communications, communication studies, JMU, General Education, public speaking
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter 12: Preparing Speeches Audience Analysis  A good speech is much more than having a good delivery; Audience analysis is the core of any public speech.   “… there’s no point in speaking unless you can improve on silence.”  “Of the three elements in speechmaking—speaker, subject, and person addressed —it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speech’s end and object.” – Aristotle  You construct your speech with the audience always in mind.  The 5 Cs of Audiences 1. Captive Audience: Disengaged Listeners­ the audience is required to listen to the speaker without a choice, and gaining and maintaining the audience’s attention are the main goals. Examples: our class presentations, mandatory meetings, etc. 2. Committed Audience: Agreeable Listeners­ wants to listen to and agree with the speaker, and inspiring action, persuading, and empowering listeners to act decisively are the mail goals. Examples: Sunday sermons, political rallies, social demonstrations, etc. 3. Contrary Audience:  Hostile Listeners­ wants to find a weakness in your argument, and knowing your topic well, having argument for it, and staying unconditionally   constructive   are   the   main   goals.   Examples:   school   board meetings, meetings on public utility rates, political gatherings, etc. 4. Concerned Audience: Eager Listeners­ cares about the issues addressed and is motivated to gather information about a topic (may become committed listeners). Examples: book and poetry readings, lectures series, town members gathering to address a problem in the town. 5. Casual Audience:  Unexpected Listeners­ becomes listeners because they hear something, stop out of curiosity or casual interest, and stay until something else becomes interesting, and connecting with listeners immediately and creating curiosity and interest are the main goals. Examples: street performers Attitude­ “a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorable toward some attitude object.” Belief­ what a person thinks is true or probable. Value­ the most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinking or behavior. Demographics­  characteristics such as age, gender, culture and ethnicity, and group affiliations.  - AGE: Generation Gap­ generalizations based on age. - GENDER: be sensitive to both genders - ETHNICITY AND CULTURE: Avoid ethnocentrism (the belief that your ethnicity group is better than others) - GROUP AFFILIATIONS: stereotypes of groups may not always be true Topic Choice and Analysis Finding a topic: Write down your interests, narrow them down, and find a specific aspect to talk about, scan books, articles or magazines, or scan blogging sites. When analyzing the appropriateness of your article, make sure you understand the speaker, audience and occasion. - Speaker: chose a topic that interests you - Audience: you wouldn’t give people in Kansas a speech about surfing; you wouldn’t speak to your professor about “Constructing a Bong.” - Occasion: don’t speak about politics at a graduation ceremony. Example of senator dying and people making his funeral a pep rally for his replacement. “Few sinners are saved after the first 20 minutes of a sermon.” – Mark Twain ^ Meaning, stay within time­constraints! General purpose­ identifies the overall goal of your speech; it tells the audience why you’re giving the speech (to inform, describe, explain, demonstrate, persuade, celebrate, memorialize, entertain, eulogize). Central idea­ identifies the main concept, point, issue, or conclusion that you want the audience to understand, believe or feel. Specific purpose statement­ concise, precise infinitive phrase composed of simple, clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech. 1. Is your purpose statement concise and precise? 2. Is your purpose statement phrased as a declarative statement? 3. Is your purpose statement free of figurative language? 4. Is your purpose statement more than simply a topic? 5. Is your purpose statement practical?  Researching your topic should be a focused undertaking Search engine­ Internet tool that computer generates indexes of web pages that match, or link with, keywords typed in a search window. Directory­ Internet tool in which humans edit indexes of web pages that match, or link with, keywords typed in a search window. Metasearch engine­ sends your keyword request to several search engines at once. Virtual library­ a search tool that combines Internet technology and standard library techniques for cataloguing and appraising information. Supporting materials­ the examples, statistics and testimony used to bolster a speaker’s viewpoint. Real examples­ actual occurrences. Argument­ “implicitly or explicitly presents a claim and provides support for that claim with reasoning and evidence.” Reasoning­ thought process of drawing conclusions from supporting materials. Evidence­ consists of supporting materials just discussed whose purpose is to bolster claims that are controversial. Six Elements of an Argument 1. Claim 2. Grounds 3. Warrant 4. Backing 5. Reservations 6. Qualifier Toulmin structure of argument­ everyday reasoning. Credibility­ used to support claims and determined by its reliability and validity. Reliability­ Consistency. Validity­ Accuracy. Ad hominem fallacy­ personal attack on the messenger to avoid the message. Not all personal attacks are ad hominem fallacies. Ad populum fallacy­ basing a claim on a popular opinion. Random sample­ portion of the population chosen in such a manner that every member of the entire population has an equal chance of being selected. Self­selected sample­ attracts the most committed, aroused, or motivated individuals to fill out surveys on their own and answer polling questions. Margin of error­  a measure of the degree of sampling error accounted for by imperfections in sample selection. Hasty generalization­ when you draw a conclusion based on too few or unrepresentative samples. Correlation­ Consistent relationship between two variables. Variable­ anything that can change.  Correlations   suggest   possible   causation,   but   correlations   alone   are   an insufficient reason to claim probable causation.  Analogies are false when significant points of difference exist despite some superficial similarities between the two things being compared. Standard Formatting I. Main point A. Primary subpoint 1. Secondary subpoint a. Tertiary subpoint


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