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LE08 Colligative Properties

by: Gabino Perez

LE08 Colligative Properties CH 302

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Chemistry > CH 302 > LE08 Colligative Properties
Gabino Perez
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Notes from Learning Exercise 8: Colligative Properties
Principles of Chemistry II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabino Perez on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
LE08 Colligative Properties Wednesday, January 27, 2016 1:15 PM Colligative Properties are properties of solutions that depend on the particular solvent and on the concentration, buy they do not depend on the nature of the solute. When the solute and the solvent have identical IMFs, the enthalpy of solution is equal to zero (∆H solutio= 0) because making the solution has no effect on the PE of the molecules (ions) Mixing the solution WILL raise the entropy of the solution (∆S solutio= 0) Colligative properties ----> entropic effect - a result of the second law (entropy increase) • Vapor Pressure Lowering (Raoult's Law): vp ofa solution will be lower than the pure subs. This is the basis of understanding distillation. Same idea as bp elevation. • Boiling Point Elevation (bp elevation): bp of a solution will be higher than the pure substance. Same as lowering of vp. • Freezing Point Depression: fp of a solution will be lower than the pure substance. Example of this is salting the sidewalk to melt ice and why ice and salt is used to make ice cream • Osmosis: explains movement of solvent b/w solutions of diff. concentrations separated by membrane. Critical concept for cell biology. Important means to purify water. Questions to Consider: - Why does the bp go up? - Why does the fp go down? - Why doesn't the nature of the solute matter? Answer: It is all in the entropy. Van't Hoff Factor Van't Hoff factor - number of ions that form up dissolving a particular ionic solid (often denoted by a lower case i) i Molecular Solids 1 Ionic Compounds # of ions in compound - Ion pairing reduces the van't Hoff factor (i) from whole numbers. Vapor Pressure Lowering Vp of solution is lower than that of pure liquid. - Example: Vp of dissolved sugar in water is lower than that of pure water. Main effect is a result of entropy - Higher entropy ---> lower its free energy. - Entropy of solution > entropy of pure solvent - Lower free energy = more stable. - Thermo standpoint, solution is more stable than pure solvent ---> because solution is more stable, fewer molecules are leaving gas phase. Thus lower evap. rate ----> lower vp. Psolution = χsolvent P° ∆P = -χsolute P° Pure water has a vapor pressure of 23.8 Torr at 25°C. What is the vapor pressure (in Torr) of a 1.2 molal solution of sucrose in water at 25°C? Boiling Point Elevation ∆T = i b m Kb(aka bp elevation constant or ebullioscopic constant)is a constant that depends on the solvent and m is the total solute concentration in molality Estimate the boiling point of a 0.6 molal solution of NaCl in water. The boiling point elevation constant of water is 0.51 K/molal. Give your answer in °C. Freezing Point Depression ∆T = i f m Osmosis Osmosis is a critical phenomenon related to the spontaneous movement of solvent across semi- permeable membranes. Osmosis occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by such a membrane. Free energy of a solution depends on its concentration. Higher concentration solutions have lower free energy. Higher concentration solutions are thermodynamically more stable. Osmotic Pressure Π=ρgh Where pi is pressure and is related to the density of the solution, p, the acceleartion due to gravity, g, and the height of the solution, h. What is the osmotic pressure of a 100 mL of toluene solution that contains a total of 0.005 moles of a polymer dissolved in it at 25°C? Give your answer in atm.


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