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Science of Language (Week 2 Notes)

by: Julia_K

Science of Language (Week 2 Notes) CSD-UE.1045


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About this Document

Phonetics 2 and Phonology 1
Science of Language
Marisa Nagano
Class Notes
Language, phonetics, phonology, Science of Language, speech
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia_K on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD-UE.1045 at New York University taught by Marisa Nagano in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Science of Language in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at New York University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Course: Science of Language  Week Two: lectures 3 and 4 Professor Marisa Nagano February 1  and 3 , 2016 st Lecture 3: Phonetics 2 February 1 , 2016 Phonetics = speech sounds. Consonants are classified by voice, place, and manner because they  talk about constrictions. Vowels, however, don’t have constrictions. Vowels:  Sounds made without a constriction in the mouth  2 types : moonothongs and diphthongs  English vowel sounds = around 15  “hat”  =  æ       “free” = i        “show” = oʊ “met” =  ɛ         “pot” = a         “raw” = ɔ “hit”  =   ɪ         “sofa” = ə        “my” = aɪ    “book” =  ʊ       “maze” = eɪ      “cow” = aʊ “gum” =  ʌ        “shoe” = u         “boy” = ɔɪ          /ʌ/ and /ə/ sound every similar but… /ʌ/ is found in stressed syllables whereas /ə/ is found in unstressed syllables. Because vowels don’t have constrictions we define them through 4 properties: 1. Height of the tongue (high/mid/low) 2. Tenseness of the tongue (tense/lax) 3. Backness of the tongue (front/central/back) 4. Roundedness of the lips *Numbers 1 and 3 are fundamental properties in every language. 1. Height a. How low/high is the tongue? b. There is more room for movement for high vowels ( i, I, e ) 2. Backness a. Is the tongue closer to the front or to the back of the mouth? b. [i] “heet”  front [u] “hoot”  back 3. Tenseness a. How “tense” is the tongue? b. Lax  a little shorter, closer to the center c. Tense  a little higher, further from the center, longer [I] “hit” = lax [i] “heat” = tense Tenseness can cause difficult for non­native English speakers. 4. Roundedness a. Are the lips rounded or not? b. In English, all rounded vowels are back, so it’s not really a distinctive feature.  Also in English, /ʌ/ and /a/ are the only vowels that are back but not rounded. Diphthongs:  Begin making one vowel but end up making another vowel  Variation in distance o “narrow” = [ eɪ], oʊ ] o “wide” = [ aɪ], [aʊ], [ɔɪ]  Lecture 4: Phonology 1            February 3 , 2016 The Stars of Phonology:  1 .     Phoneme  a. What we know a sound to be represented as (for example, the “p” sound in “spot” belongs to the sound /p/). b. Phonemes are meaning­distinguished sounds. c. Abstract sound unit in speaker’s mind.  2 .     Allophone  a. Different “versions” of phonemes. b. Can have different allophones for a phoneme (different ways of pronouncing one  sound; in English, speakers cannot hear the difference between these subtle  variances). c. Brain lumps them together under a single “phoneme”. d. The actual pronounced sound. Big Picture: we produce speech sounds with some variations (allophones), but we hear them as  one of a set of group sounds (phonemes). (SEE MORE BELOW) Ex: in English language: h = aspirating (extra air) Phoneme: /p/ Allophones of /p/  :   [p], [p^h], [p’]  ‘ = unreleased (no  Native English speakers hear all of these versions as a single phoneme /p/, but in  some languages (like Khmer), different allophones represent different phonemes altogether. Difference between brackets and slashes: brackets indicate phonetic analysis (sound), whereas  slashes claim something as a phoneme. How do we figure out if a sound is a Phoneme or Allophone? … We look for Minimal Pairs: (established on basis of sound, not spelling)  Pairs of words that differ in only ONE sound (phoneme can show up in different places  of a word).  [Pit] and [Bit]  Prove that these 2 critical sounds can distinguish meaning. Complementary Distribution: when 2 sounds always occur in different environments. (In Canada [ʌw] and [aw] are similar sounds but always used in different contexts).


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