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PSY 320 - Tobacco

by: Elliana

PSY 320 - Tobacco PSY 320

GPA 3.9

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Combined textbook, course document, & lecture notes covering everything on tobacco
Drugs & Behavior
Dr. Marc Gellman
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Drugs & Behavior

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 10 Tobacco Tobacco = the leading cause of a preventable death Origins • Cul▯vated & used by Na▯ve Americans for centuries ◦ Methods of use: Snuff or smoke Plant • Tobacco, 2 main species: ◦ Nico▯ana Tobacum: large-leaf, indigenous to South America ◦ Nico▯ana Rus▯ca: small-leaf, from West Indies & eastern North America History • Ini▯ally promoted as a medicine, viewed as having many posi▯ve medical uses ◦ Also viewed as having nega▯ve reproduc▯ve effects • 1604 - King James published an▯-tobacco pamphet about health harms • 1890s - Nico▯ne dropped from US Pharmacopoeia • 1908 - NY made it illegal for women to smoke it in public • Non-medical use - found to be effec▯ve as insec▯cide for farming • Snuff - Use widespread during 18th century ◦ Perceived as a Bri▯sh product ◦ Declined a▯er the Revolu▯on • Chewing Tobacco - 19th century, nearly all tobacco produced & used in the U.S. was for chhewing • 1930s & 40s - Reports linking smoking & cancer • Tobacco companies' response: ◦ Forma▯on of Council for Tobacco Research • Not independent • Tried to undermine health risk claims ◦ Mass-marke▯ng of filter cigare▯es & cigare▯es w. lowered tar/nico▯ne content • Promoted as "safer" alterna▯ves • Consumers smoked more ◦ Market American cigare▯es to other countries to get customers addicted • 1960s Surgeon General's report states that smoking causes lung cancer in men ◦ Tobacco sales began a decline which has con▯nued ◦ 1965 - Congress required warning labels on cigare▯e packages ◦ 1971 - TV & radio cigare▯e ads banned ◦ 1990 - Smoking banned on interstate buses & domes▯c airline flights ◦ 1994 - CEOs of large tobacco companies tes▯fy to Congress that nico▯ne is not addic▯ve ◦ 1995 - FDA proposes to further regulate tobacco & ads • Educa▯on is the single biggest influence on smoking rates ◦ Men: 25% • High school diploma only: 28% • Undergraduate degree: 11% %0 2 : nem ◦ oW • Non-college students: 19% • Full-▯me college students: 5% Manufacture • Smoking became popular in 19th century & later due to cheaper paper produc▯on 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Increase in factories ◦ Development of automated smoking devices ◦ Inexpensive mahine-produced cigare▯es Harms • Lung cancer • Cardiovascular disease • Chronic obstruc▯ve lung diseases (emphysema, etc.) • Risk increases for those who: ◦ Start young ◦ Smoke many cigare▯es ◦ Con▯nue for a long ▯me • Dead ▯ssues inside the body & organs ◦ Ischemic ▯ssue in the heart causes heart a▯acks • Other issues: ◦ Causes fires ◦ Pollu▯on by toxins released & discarded bu▯s ◦ Social isola▯on r o◦d O ◦ Cosme▯c concerns (wrinkles, balding, etc.) ◦ Financial expenses ◦ Secondhand smoke • Pregnancy: ◦ Miscarriage ◦ Low birth weight ◦ SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) ◦ Neurological problems ◦ Hyperac▯vity ◦ Learning disabili▯es Organs affected 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Cardiovascular disease • Lung cancer Mechanisms of ac▯on • Nico▯ne ◦ Ac▯ve ingredient to tobacco ◦ Naturally occurring liquid alkaloid that is colorless & vola▯le • Lungs: ◦ Inhala▯on very effec▯ve ◦ 90% of inhaled nico▯ne is absorbed ◦ Enters brain in 7 seconds, peak absorp▯on at 7 minutes • 80-90% of nico▯ne is deac▯vated in the liver, then excreted via kidneys ◦ Nico▯ne increases ac▯vity of liver enzymes responsible for nico▯ne deac▯va▯on ◦ Metabolized by CYP450 enzymes: CYP2A6 & CYP2B6 • Contributes to tolerance • May decrease effects of medica▯ons ◦ Major metabolite is co▯nine • Byproduct which remains in the bood for up to 2 days • Tar (tobacco byproduct) adheres to ▯ssues in mouth, nose, throat, lungs, & skin • Nico▯ne acts on: ◦ Nico▯ne acts on nico▯nic acetylcholine receptors ◦ Receptors present in drenal medulla ◦ Mimics acetylcholine • First s▯mulates then blocks receptor sites • Indirect sympopathomime▯c effect Effects • Increases levels of: ◦ Dopamine in reward circuits of CNS ◦ Flows of adrenaline (by binding to nico▯nic receptors) ◦ Release of epinephrine • Increase in heart rate, blood pressure, respira▯on, blood glucose levels • Nico▯ne poisoning: : l e v e l w◦ o L • Beginning smokers • Nausea, dizziness, general weakness ◦ Higher level/acute: • Tremors, convulsions, paralysis of breathing muscles, death • CNS & Circulatory System effects: ◦ Increases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens ◦ Influences acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, serotonin, & vasopressin ◦ Increased heart rate/blood pressure ◦ Increased oxygen need of the heart ◦ Decreased oxygen-carrying ability of blood • Shortness of breath ◦ Increased platelet adhesiveness (s▯cky blood platelets) ◦ Increased electrical ac▯vity in the cortex r e g nuh de c ud◦ e R • Inhibi▯on of hunger contrac▯ons • Increased blood sugar • Deadening of taste buds 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Peripheral nervous system: ◦ Increases sympathe▯c nervous system ac▯vity • Release of adrenaline from adrenal glands & other sympathe▯c sites ◦ S▯mulates & blocks various sensory receptors • Behavioral effects: ◦ Nico▯ne has s▯mulant & calming effects ◦ User expecta▯on plays important role e c nednep◦e D no▯ c i d◦d A g n i v a◦ r C ◦ Irritability ◦ Anxiety ◦ Hos▯lity ◦ Concentra▯on difficul▯es ◦ Impa▯ence ◦ Insomnia Treatment • Nico▯ne-replacement therapy: ◦ Non-tobacco nico▯ne products to minimize withdrawal symptoms m◦u G s eh c t◦ a P ◦ Nasal spray ◦ Inhalors s e g ne z◦ o L ◦ Zyban • Nico▯nic-receptor agonists: ◦ Reduce withdrawal symptoms ◦ I.E. Varenicline • An▯depressant drugs: ◦ Address nico▯ne's effects on dopamine ◦ I.E. Bupropion The Health Consequences of Smoking (ar▯cle notes) • Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature disease & death in the U.S. • 2004 report concludes that smoking affects nearly every organ in the body • Ac▯ve smoking is causally associated with: ◦ Age-related macular degenera▯on ◦ Diabetes ◦ Colorectal cancer ◦ Liver cancer s i s o l u c r eb◦ u T no▯ c nu f s y d e l ▯ c e◦ r E ◦ Orofacial cle▯s in infants ◦ Ectopic pregnancy ◦ Rheumatoid arthri▯s ◦ Inflamma▯on ◦ Impaired immune func▯on • Exposure to secondhand smoke causally associated w. increased risk for stroke • What works: ◦ Media campaigns ◦ Smokefree air policies 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Op▯mal tobacco excise taxes ◦ Barrier-free cessa▯on treatment ◦ Comprehensive statewide tobacco control programs ◦ Greater restric▯on on sales • History: ◦ Over 20 million Americans died from cigare▯es since the first Surgeon General's report in 1964 • 2.5 million were non-smokers dying of hear diseases/lung cancer from exposure to secondhand smoke • 100,000 babies from SIDS or complica▯ons (prematurity, low birth weight, parental smoking) ◦ More than 10 ▯mes as many U.S. ci▯zens did from smoking than from all the wars combined in U.S. history ◦ Prevalence of smoking has declined, but men & women have a higher risk for lung cancer & pulmonary disease than in 1964 despite smoking fewer cigare▯es • Research: ◦ 2006 reports conclude there are no risk-free levels of exposure to secondhand smoke ◦ Results of an▯-smoking measures: • Text-only pack warnings • Control programs • Indoor smoking bans • Support for cessa▯on • Restric▯ons on adver▯sements/promo▯ons • Tax hikes d e n i l c e d e v a h s e t a r g n i k o▪ m S ▪ Mortality rates declined for heart disease & lung cancer ◦ 2005-2009: Smoking & secondhand accounts for: • Over 87% of lung cancer deaths • 61% of pulmonary disease deaths • 32% of all deaths from coronary heart disease ◦ The rela▯ve risk for dying from coronary heart disease among women 35 years + is now higher than for men ◦ Women who smoke have the same high risk of death from lung cancer as men • Na▯onal financial costs: ◦ Produc▯vity losses from premature death alone exceeds $150 billion per year • Value of produc▯vity loss from premature deaths by secondhand exposure is ~ $5.6 billion per year ◦ Annual costs of direct medical care a▯ributable to smoking are over $130 billion • Summary: ◦ Epidemic of cigare▯e smoking is a public health tragedy ◦ Epidemic ini▯ated & sustained by aggressive strategies of the tobacco industry • Deliberately misled the public on risks of smoking cigare▯es ◦ Secondhand smoke causally linked to cancer, respiratory & cardiovascular diseases, & adverse health effects on the health of infants & children ◦ Large dispari▯es in tobacco use remain across groups according to: • Race • Ethnicity • Educa▯onal level • Socioeconomic status • Region ◦ Comprehensive tobacco control programs & policies since 1964 have been proven effec▯ve for controlling use 5


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