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PSY 311 Topic 3 - Emotions & Decision Making

by: Elliana

PSY 311 Topic 3 - Emotions & Decision Making PSY 311

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY 311 > PSY 311 Topic 3 Emotions Decision Making
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About this Document

Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything on topic 3
Ray Winters
Class Notes




Popular in Emotion

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
PSY 311 Emotion Topic 3 Emotions and Decision-Making Blue Ribbon Emo▯on & Decision Making • Always conscious ◦ Always shows the subjec▯ve experien▯al component • Nega▯ve blue ribbon emo▯ons s▯mulate cogni▯ve processing such as reflec▯on, thought, & retrospec▯ve analysis of ac▯ons called counterfactual thinking ◦ Accompanied by increases in mo▯va▯on to change behavior ◦ Usually leads to genera▯ng a new "if-then" rule • If-then Rule: ▪ Decisions are o▯en based on these (type of cogni▯ve content) ▪ If = what you plan to do ▪ Then = the emo▯onal consequences of the ac▯on taken ▪ If a nega▯ve blue ribbon emo▯on is experienced, the If-then rule changes to avoid experiencing another nega▯ve emo▯on • Nega▯ve blue ribbon emo▯ons bring cogni▯on into a person's emo▯onal world, & the emo▯onal memory developed when experiencing the nega▯ve emo▯on is a source of knowledge used in future decisions Automa▯c Affect/Emo▯on • Some▯mes conscious, o▯en not ◦ When conscious, it is experienced as a "gut feeling" or "intui▯on" • Based on associa▯ve (emo▯onal) memories ONLY • Developed via classical condi▯oning when a full blow blue ribbon emo▯on is evoked • Ac▯va▯on of approach or avoidance tendencies (mo▯va▯on) result from appraisal • Important for making current decisions Blue Ribbon Emo▯ons - they make you stupid • Research shows it's not a good idea to make important decisions or have meaningful social interac▯ons when experiencing a nega▯ve blue ribbon emo▯on (anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness) • Emo▯onally distressed ppl are primarily mo▯vated to get rid of the nega▯ve emo▯on ◦ They will take desperate measures to feel be▯er quickly ◦ This mo▯va▯on leads to poor judgment ◦ Mood Repair/Mood Regula▯on - There is an implica▯onal belief that the decision will terminate or decrease the intensity of the nega▯ve emo▯on • The expression of anger can also be destruc▯ve to interpersonal rela▯onships Decision-Making • When we make decisions we use 4 sources of knowledge: ◦ Senses (vision, hearing, etc.) to take note of current circumstances ◦ Knowledge from declara▯ve memories ◦ Knowledge from soma▯c markers (based on emo▯onal memories) ◦ Cogni▯on (knowledge from thoughts & cogni▯ve processes) • Our lives are improved by experiencing nega▯ve emo▯ons because we learn from them & can make future decisions based off of them Affect Infusion Model • People use their current emo▯onal state as informa▯on in reaching a decision about some target • Even if the target did not evoke the emo▯on ◦ I.E. People are more likely to answer posi▯vely when asked how they're doing on a sunny day vs. a rainy day 1 PSY 311 Emotion • Though the "cloudy day" effect disappears if the weather is explicitly brought to par▯cipants' a▯en▯on The Case of Elliot • Had a tumor in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex ◦ Very small piece of ▯ssue in frontal lobe ◦ Stores & retrieves emo▯onal memories • A▯er surgical removal: ◦ Lost his business e f i w s i h y b d e c r o v◦i D ◦ Couldn't hold a job or a rela▯onship • Neuropsychological tes▯ng: ◦ Short term & long term memory ◦ Language ability ◦ Abstract thinking ◦ Performance of math calcula▯ons ◦ Ability to learn new material ◦ Ability to focus a▯en▯on ◦ Ability to reason • VPC removal effect: ◦ Couldn't store & retrieve emo▯onal memories ◦ He didn't respond to social rewards & social punishments • Examples: s no i s i c ed s s en i s ub r o◦ o P • Importance of subtle emo▯onal reac▯ons in making judgments about the trustworthiness of others (gut feelings or hunch) • Cogni▯ve & Automa▯c appraisals altered b/c they both use emo▯onal memories, so he's not able to rely on the gut feelings he normally would have ◦ Poor marital decisions (2nd marriage) • Assessing trustworthiness, character, loyalty by subtle emo▯onal reac▯ons ◦ Pushing his boss with a door • Subtle emo▯ons (soma▯c markers) tell a person not to do something b/c of the long-term emo▯onal consequences ◦ Calling boss a "pinhead" ◦ Telling his wife's friend that she wasn't as hos▯le as his wife said • Unable to empathize with others b/c lack of emo▯onal memories Decisions in the Personal & Social Domain • Decision in the personal domain: ◦ A decision that affects the well-being of the individual who made the decision with respect to the emo▯onal consequences (reward or punishment) of the decision • Decision in the social domain: ◦ The impact of a decision on the well-being of other people Value of Emo▯on s • Emo▯ons are a type of knowledge that is important in making decisions • Emo▯on: ◦ Helps us predict the emo▯onal consequences of decisions ◦ Mo▯va▯onal component of the emo▯on (approach or avoidance) provides cri▯cal informa▯on used in decision making ◦ Soma▯c markers provide informa▯on about emo▯onal reac▯ons to a central execu▯ve Soma▯c Marker Hypothesis 2 PSY 311 Emotion • When we have to make a quick decision, our mind: ◦ Quickly es▯mates the likely outcomes of possible op▯ons ◦ Generates emo▯onal responses to these outcomes ◦ Uses the emo▯on to guide the decision • The emo▯onal response includes a neural representa▯on of the physiological changes you'd feel in the actual outcome situa▯on ◦ Hence "Soma▯c Marker" • Soma▯c markers - Bodily changes like heart rate, blood pressure, swea▯ng, pupil dila▯on, etc. • Posi▯ve - tells us to approach rewards • Nega▯ve - tells us to avoid consequences • Considera▯ons: ◦ Some people show ▯ghter links btwn their an▯cipated & actual emo▯ons than others ◦ Ppl with less func▯onal prefrontal cortex regions (teenagers or brain-damaged ppl) may have weak an▯cipatory emo▯ons • Implica▯ons: ◦ Ppl who have a stronger emo▯onal reac▯on while making a decision should make different decisions 3


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