Chapter 4: Emotions and Moods
Chapter 4: Emotions and Moods MGMT 3850
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Date Created: 02/04/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Study Guide Chapter 4: Emotions and Moods 1. Differentiate between emotions and moods. Affect: A broad range of feelings that people experience. Emotions: o Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Moods: o Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotions: o Caused by specific event o Very brief in duration o Specific and numerous in nature o Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions o Action oriented in nature Moods: o Cause is often general and unclear o Last longer than emotions o More general o Generally not indicated by expressions o Cognitive in nature The structure of mood o High negative affect (Tense, nervous, stressed) o Low negative affect ( Sad, depressed, bored) o High positive affect (Excited, elated, happy) o Low positive affect (Content, serene, relaxed) Positive affect: A mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions, such as excitement, selfassurance, and cheerfulness at the high and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end. Negative affect: A mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end. Positive offset: The tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input. 2. Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve. Research is increasingly showing that emotions are actually critical to rational thinking. Our emotions provide important information about how we understand the world around us. The key to good decisionmaking is to employ both thinking and feeling in our decisions. People who are behaving ethically are at least partially making decisions based on their emotions and feelings and this emotional reaction will often be a good thing. 3. Identify the sources of emotions and moods. Personality o Affect intensity: individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions. Time of day: o Levels of positive affect tend to peak in the late morning and then remain at that level until early evening. Day of the week o Highest negative affect: Monday o Lowest negative affect: Friday Weather o Weather has little effect on the mood, at least for most people. o Illusory correlation: The tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is not connection. Stress Social Activities Sleep Exercise Age Sex 4. Show the impact emotional labor has on employees. Emotional labor o A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. Emotional dissonance o Inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project Felt emotions: an individual’s actual emotions. Displayed emotions: Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. Surface acting: Hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. Deep acting: Trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules. 5. Describe affective events theory and its applications. Affective events theory (AET) o A model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors. Tests of affective events theory suggests the following: o An emotional episode is actually a series of emotional experiences, precipitated by a single event and containing elements of both emotions and mood cycles. o Current emotions influence job satisfaction at any given time, along with the history of emotions surrounding the event. o Because moods and emotions fluctuate over time, their effect on performance also fluctuates. o Emotiondriven behaviors are typically sort in duration and of high variability. o Because emotions, even positive ones, tend to be incompatible with behaviors required to do a job, they typically have negative influence on job performance. AET offers two important messages o Emotions provide valuable insights into how workplace hassles and uplifting events influence employee performance or satisfaction. o Employees and managers shouldn’t ignore emotions or the events that cause them, even when they appear minor, because they accumulate. 6. Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence (EI) o The ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information. The case FOR EI o Intuitive appeal o EI predicts criteria that matter o EI is biologically based The Case against EI o EI researchers do not agree on definitions o EI can’t be measured o EI is nothing but personality with a different label. 7. Identify strategies for emotion regulation and their likely effects. Selection o Employers should consider EI a factor in hiring employees, especially for jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. Decision Making o Positive moods and emotions seem to help people make sound decisions. o People in good moods or experiencing positive emotions are more likely than others to use heuristics, or rules of thumb to help make good decisions quickly. Creativity o People in good moods tend to be more creative than people in bad moods. o They produce more ideas and more options and others think their ideas are original. Motivation o Giving performance feedback influences moods and influences motivation. Leadership o The expression of emotion in speeches is often the critical element that makes us accept or reject a leader’s message. o Transformational leaders realize the effect emotion has on their followers and often freely share emotions. o Leaders who focus on inspirational goals also generate greater optimism and enthusiasm in employees, leading to more positive social interactions with coworkers and customers. Negotiation o A powerful, betterinformed individual will be less willing to share information or meet an angry opponent halfway. o Individuals who do poorly in a negotiation experience negative emotions, develop negative perceptions of their counterpart, and are less willing to share information or be cooperative in future negotiations. Customer Service o A worker’s emotional state influences customer service, which influences levels of repeat business and of customer satisfaction. o Providing high quality customer service makes demands on employees because it often puts them in a state of emotional dissonance. o Emotional contagion: The process by which peoples’ emotions are caused by the emotions of others. Job Attitudes o People who had a good day at work tend to be in a better mood at home and vise versa. Deviant Workplace Behaviors o Workplace deviant behaviors: people often behave in ways that violate established norms and threaten the organization, or members, or both. o Angry people look for other people to blame for their bad mood, interpret other people’s behavior as hostile, and have trouble considering others’ point of view. Safety and Injury at Work o Research relating negative affectivity to increased injuries at work suggests employers might improve health and safety by ensuring workers aren’t engaged in potentially dangerous activities when they’re in a bad mood. 8. Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues. Managers can use humor and give their employees small tokens of appreciation for work well done. When leaders themselves are in good moods, group members are more positive, as a result, they cooperate better.
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