Week 4 - Chapter 5 Organizational Behavior
Week 4 - Chapter 5 Organizational Behavior MGT 3813
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Smith on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3813 at Mississippi State University taught by Emily Marett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at Mississippi State University.
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Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 Motivation Theories – Chapter 5 Slide 1. MOTIVATION THEORIES Slide 2. What motivates you? a. How do you choose what you do each day? b. Why do you work at a certain job? c. What would make you work harder? d. Most are incentive based. e. Reward vs. punishment Slide 3. Top 10 Motivators (Gallup, 2007) a. Public praise/recognition b. Opportunities to show off a winning call c. Customer feedback (that they made a difference d. Earned extra time off e. Training/personal development f. Respect as a viable part of the organization g. Requested to mentor a new hire h. Requested to complete special project work Slide 4. Top 10, cont. a. Top notch systems b. Bright, comfortable surroundings c. What is motivation? i. The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. d. Pay attention to your employees and see what motivates them. Slide 5. Two Types of Motivation a. Intrinsic (Internal) i . (selfmotivation) ii. Hobbies, interests, volunteer work, whatever you do for fun. b. Extrinsic i . (forced, somebody tells you to do something) ii. Pay/benefits, grade requirement c. Which one is more effective? Slide 6. Intrinsic Motivation a. Factors that create and sustain it: i. Being able to challenge yourself and accomplish new tasks ii. Having choices over what you do iii. Working with and helping others iv. Happy at work, you like your job (job satisfaction) Slide 7. What should managers do? a. ASK THEIR EMPLOYEES WHAT MOTIVATES THEM!! Slide 8. Theories of Motivation a. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs b. ERG Theory c. McClelland’s Theory of Needs Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 Slide 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a. Employers need to find which need is activated and offer your employees something that ills their need. Sel f- Act ual iza Esteem (ego) n Social (love) Safety (Security) Physiological Slide 10. Maslow, cont. a. How do you motivate someone using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? b. Advantages: i. Intuitive Logic ii. Easy to understand c. Disadvantages: i. Maslow provided no empirical validation ii. Research hasn’t proven valid iii. Assumes that only one need is active at one time iv. Maslow assumes its linear the way they have ranked the needs are the same. Slide 11. ERG Theory a. Existent Relatedness Growth Theory b. Developed in response to criticisms of Maslow’s hierarchy c. Does not rank needs in a certain priority d. Assumes that more than one need may be active simultaneously e. Proposes the “frustrationregression hypothesis” i. If you are frustrated/unsuccessful in meeting a need, may regress to focus on another need. Slide 12. ERG Theory Existence Physiological Needs/Safety Relatedness Growth Self Social/Love Actualization Slide 13. What is happening in this picture? Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 Slide 14. McClelland’s Theory of Needs a. We all have three needs: i. Need for achievement (drive to excel, to succeed) 1. If you think the lady is trying to get something done = Achievement ii. Need for power (need to influence control over others) 1. If you think the lady is a boss = Power iii. Need for affiliation (need for friends and interpersonal relationships) 1. If you think the lady is a busy mom = Affiliation b. How do you effectively manage high need for achievement employees? i. High need for achievement employee: 1. Employee doesn’t want it to be too easy 2. Employee doesn’t want something impossible 3. Need to find something in the middle 4. If odds for success are 50/50, that is a good task for a high need for achievement person. c. Which needs do effective managers score high on? i. Managers hire on achievement and power Slide 15. McClelland’s Theory of Needs a. Advantages: i . Most research support b. Disadvantages: i. Least practical (these needs act at the subconscious level) ii. Measuring them is not easy and is timeconsuming (show picture and tell a story) iii . Not used much Slide 16. Contemporary Theories (Newer Theories) a. Cognitive evaluation theory b. Goalsetting theory c. Selfefficacy theory d. Reinforcement theory e. Expectancy theory f. Equity theory Slide 17. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 a. This theory states: b. My hobby Intrinsic is higher i. Someone tells me to do my hobby and gives me pay Hobby becomes extrinsic c. The introduction of extrinsic rewards, such as pay, for work that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation. i. Pay turns intrinsic to extrinsic d. Why? There are two possible explanations. i. Actually three: 1. Lose autonomy/control over the task 2. I’m no longer the boss 3. Focus shifts to reward instead of your joy. Slide 18. Cognitive Evaluation Theory a. Other complicating factors— b. Extrinsic rewards that are verbal (praise) have a different effect than those that are tangible (money). c. Verbal Intrinsic motivation d. Tangible Intrinsic motivation e. Why? i. With tangible rewards, you focus more on the reward than the task. Slide 19. Cognitive Evaluation Theory a. Selfconcordance: the degree to which a person’s reasons for pursuing a goal are consistent with the person’s interests and core values b. Feels good to do something you believe in. c. Employee whose value system matches the organizations d. Higher levels of selfconcordance lead to: i. Job satisfaction ii. Productivity iii. Fit into the organization better iv. More likely to attain your goals v. More happy, even if not successful e. Why? i . They enjoy the process Slide 20. GoalSetting Theory a. This theory states that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. b. ***This theory is backed up by TONS of research. Slide 21. GoalSetting Theory a. Specific goals are more effective than general goals (e.g. “Do your best”) i. They will try harder if you are more specific 1. Vague goal: “Do your best” 2. Specific goal: Actual number to reach b. More difficult goals lead to higher levels of job performance c. Why are more difficult goals more effective? (three reasons) i. You literally try harder Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 ii. Focus harder – less mistakes iii. Creative solutions Slide 22. GoalSetting Theory a. Feedback leads to higher performance because feedback helps guide behavior i. Tells you how you are doing. b. However: c. Selfgenerated feedback more powerful motivator than feedback from external sources. i. We are more motivated when we decide to do it. ii. Less motivated when someone tries to tell us what to do. Slide 23. GoalSetting Theory a. Three factors that determine whether or not this theory holds true i. Goal commitment 1. If you are committed you won’t do it. ii. Task characteristics iii. Culture Slide 24. GoalSetting Theory a. Goal commitment: whether the individual believes he/she can achieve the goal and whether the individual wants to achieve it b. Most likely to have high commitment when the goals are made public i. We respond to peer pressure. c. Also higher when individual has internal locus of control d. Also higher when individual sets their own goals Slide 25. GoalSetting Theory a. Task characteristics: Goals increase performance for simple, welllearned and independent tasks, straightforward. b. This theory isn’t effective for complex tasks, novel tasks, or tasks that depend on other members of a team i . Will do well with: 1. Easily countable/measurable more objective 2. Working by yourself Slide 26. GoalSetting Theory a. Culture: this theory assumes that i. Employees are independent (low on power distance); ii. Employees seek challenging goals (low uncertainty avoidance) iii. And that performance is important (high in need for achievement) Slide 27. SelfEfficacy Theory a. An individual’s belief IN IF he or she is capable of performing a task b. If low—more likely to give up when task is difficult c. If high—more likely to respond to negative feedback with increased effort d . You want high. Slide 28. SelfEfficacy Theory a. Four ways to increase selfefficacy: i. MOST – Enactive mastery (Practice) ii. | Vicarious modeling (Watching someone else do it) Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 iii. | Verbal persuasion (Someone tries to persuades you to do it: Pep talk) iv. LEAST – Arousal (Getting pumped up: Example MSU Football Hype Videos) b. Which method is the most effective? i. Enactive mastery Slide 29. SelfEfficacy Theory a. Works together with goalsetting theory i. Only for medium to high selfefficacy Slide 30. Reinforcement Theory a. A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences. b. How I act is because of the punishment I am afraid of. c. What motivates behavior under this theory? d. Major criticism: i. This theory ignores the inner state of the individual and focuses solely on what happens to a person when he/she takes action. ii. (Ignores feelings, attitudes, expectations) Slide 31. Reinforcement Theories a . Classical conditioning i. Modifying behavior by pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit an unconditioned response ii. Pavlov’s dogs iii. Natural production of saliva (unconditioned response) in response to the presentation of meat (unconditioned stimulus) iv. Ringing a bell (conditioned stimulus) while presenting the meat (unconditioned stimulus) v. Ringing a bell results in production of saliva, even when no meat present vi. Works best for animals Slide 32. Reinforcement Theories a. Classical conditioning not very useful for OB(managers) i. Humans are much more complex and less susceptible to simple causeandeffect conditioning ii. Human capacity for decisionmaking easily overrides simple conditioning Slide 33. Reinforcement Theories a . Operant conditioning Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 i. Process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors ii. B.F. Skinner—Behavior is a function of its consequences Slide 34. Reinforcement Theories a. Shape behavior using reinforcement or punishment b. Positive reinforcement = reward c. Negative reinforcement = withhold something negative d. Punishment = withhold a reward, or apply something negative e. Extinction = a strategy to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it i. An alternative to punishment ii. Takes time and patience iii. What if misinterpreted? iv. Extinction is a non response (Ignoring behavior) 1. Riskiest 2. Sheldon gave Penny chocolate to reinforce good behavior Slide 35. Reinforcement Theories a . Social Learning Theory i. Bandura ii. We can learn by vicariously observing the behavior of others. iii . I can watch someone else be punished or rewarded iv. Bobo Doll 1. Child saw kid show violence on TV and then did violence himself. Trying to see if violence in cartoons could shape child behavior. Slide 36 . Expectancy Theory a. A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on: i. The strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a certain outcome ii. The attractiveness of that outcome b. Do you expect to actually be rewarded? c. Do you even want the reward? Slide 37. Expectancy Theory Self efficacy Will I actually get reward Is the reward something I want a. Effortperformance relationship i. If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized in my performance appraisal? b. Performancereward relationship i. If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards? c. Rewardspersonal goals relationship i. If I’m rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive? Slide 38. Equity Theory a. A theory that states that individuals compare job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities b. Fairness/Justness Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 c. There are four referent groups: (GOOD ESSAY QUESTION***) i. Selfinside: an employee’s experiences in a different position within the organization 1. My current position compared to a different position in the same company. ii. Selfoutside: an employee’s experiences in a position outside the organization 1. My current position compared to the same job I held at another company. iii. Otherinside: Another individual inside the org. 1. Compare your position to someone else you know in the same position at the same company a. Example: Susan Lack and Emily Marett iv. Otheroutside: Another individual outside the org 1. Compare yourself to someone in the same job at a different company. a. Example: Emily Marett vs. teacher at Ole Miss Slide 39. Equity Theory a. If we perceive that our inputoutcome ratio is equal to others, equity exists b. We then perceive things to be fair c. If the ratio is unequal, we experience tension: i. Underrewarded? Anger ii. Overrewarded? Guilt Slide 40. Equity Theory a. Responses to inequity: i. Change their inputs (Change your effort level) ii. Change their outcomes (Asking for a raise) iii. Distort perceptions of self (“I work hard so I deserve more.” Rationalization.) iv. Distort perceptions of others (Switch the rationalization on others) v. Choose a different referent (Picking someone different to compare yourself to.) vi. Leave the field (Quit) Slide 41. Equity Theory a. Organizational justice (Overall feeling of justice) i. An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, includes distributive, procedural and interactional justice b. Distributive justice (Distributing) i. Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals c. Procedural justice (Procedures) i. The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards Slide 42. Equity Theory a. Interactional justice (Do you respect?) i. The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect b. What can managers do to improve their employees’ perceptions of justice? i. Consider contribution levels when distributing rewards ii. Pay attention to your process for making decisions iii. Ask for input Chapter 5 Notes MGT 3813 MSU – Emily Marett Week 4 iv. Communicate your reasons for your decisions Slide 43. Tips for Managers a. Consider contribution levels when distributing rewards b. Pay attention to your process for making decisions c. Ask for input d. Communicate your reasons for your decisions e. Enforce rules consistently f. Pay attention to how you talk to people g. Remember justice is in the eye of the beholder h. People are just as upset if someone else is “wronged”
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