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Bio 2

by: Brittany Laster
Brittany Laster
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes are the first part of what is going to be on exam 2!
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes
Bio, bio2, Biologynotes, Biology2, notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Laster on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Biology Notes  Beginning Exam 2 *Unlike last time, these notes do not cover all the notes for exam 2 (We haven’t covered it all in  class yet).*  Okay guys, now we get into the really riveting stuff. PLANTS WOOT WOOT… no?  Okay. Well please keep in mind that statistically this is the exam most people do badly on. We  all know the basic concepts such as photosynthesis, and (I hope) what the leaves, stem, and roots  are. But, with this college wibbly wobbly stuff we have to go even deeper. (If you at least  recognize where wibbly wobbly comes from you are my person­ hint: it ends with timey wimey). With that nerdgasm of mine, lets actually start to learn… wow I think I heard you guys moan  from here. DEFINITION TIME YAYYYYY!!!! (Guys seriously, I’m being sarcastic­ I am normal. I hate definitions too­ don’t call 911 I am fine)  Angiosperm­ flowering plants   Plant growth is indeterminate meaning they grow until they DIIIIEEEEEE (unlike  humans, we tend to grow then stop… then some of us shrink)  Alteration of Generations­ alternation between the diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) stages  of development (I am going to put a diagram in at the end)  Sporophyte­ (2N) “spore” producing plant (This one is easy to remember, spore­ sporophyte) they spend their life cycle dominantly in the Diploid stage and produce  flowers and fruits. MICROscopic (meaning they tend to be large)  Gametophyte­ (1N) I bet ya’ll can’t guess what they produce? GAMETES! These plants  are microscopic meaning they tend to be pretty small, aka made with 2­7 cells. The male  gametes are pollen while the female gamete is an embryo sac. (Make your own jokes).   11 ­ Primary / 2 1 ­ secondary (All plants exhibit primary growth but not all exhibit  secondary growth)  The important plant organs are roots, leaves, and stems (btw leaves and stems make up  the shoot)   11 plant growth­ elongation of plant organs (roots and shoots)  11 xylem­ is a conducting tissue that distributes water and minerals throughout the plant;  vascular  11 Phloem­ also a conducting tissue, conducts the plants food throughout  Epidermis­ the outer part of a plant that acts as protection  Parenchyma (did not make that up)­ acts as storage for the plant and is the most  abundantly found and is part of the cortex (storage support) making up the pith (storage)  Collenchyma­ (Does not work with the colon, I checked) but it does serve to protect and  support the plant (awwww… why am I shipping this?) and is found in the cortex  Sclerenchyma­ (seriously, did they just barf up letters) also serves to protect and support  the plant (love triangle?) also part of the cortex, however this part of the plant does not  elongate  21 Plant growth­ increases the plant’s diameter and expands the plant organs (only in the  roots and stems and are considered to be woody tissues)  Like everything else: there are two major groups of angiosperms: Monocots and Dicots.  Monocots­ all exhibit 1 1 growth. Their roots tend to break off from a point and create  many branching roots (seen below­ first plant). In monocots the pith is located in the  center and the xylem and phloem surround it alternating in a circle.  Dicots­ 1 1 and 2 1  (mostly) growth, and the dicots contain the largest group of species. In  dicots, there is one large root that has many smaller ones branching off of it (second plant below). In dicots the Xylem is found in the center with phloem surrounding it.  With a dicot leaf there are 1 – 3 large veins with smaller branches called Net venation  (above­ image 2)  Monocot leaf veins tend to be smaller and around the same size that run parallel to one  another without touching (above­ image 1­ not really parallel in drawing, but it was the  best I found) called parallel venation.  At the tips of ALL roots and ships are meristems (cell factories) that constantly go  through cell division and enlarge the plant, RAM ( root apical meristem) and SAM (shoot apical meristem) are both primary growth working to elongate the plant (If you watch  Supernatural you know Sam is extremely tall, so in plants the SAM works to make the  plant taller)… wow I am going all fangirl on these notes… all I need is a Sherlock  reference to complete the triad. If you have no idea what I am going on about just ignore  me  We have all heard that if you count the rings in a tree’s trunk you can figure out how old  it is. That is because of the lateral meristems that work in expanding the plant which is  part of secondary growth. Not all plants experience expansion (lucky, if I could avoid  expanding when I ate junk food I would be quite happy)   Roots­ are mostly found underground and serve as an anchor for the plant as well as  storage and absorption of water and the minerals within the soil (Look at figure 35.24 in  text­ stop moaning, you can probably pull it up on google without touching your bio  book) There are 4 sections to a root: 1) top section: mature region, oldest 2) region of  elongation­ this is where cells become larger and the roots elongate 3) RAM, region of  cell division, the cells are constantly dividing.  Root cap­ semi circular shape at the end of a root that protects it from damage (like  running into a rock) *My next upload will continue with the shoot. Life cycle below: from notes given in lecture In case you can’t read the bottom definitions: Syngamy­ restores chromosome number and  changes generation from 1N to 2N. Meiosis­ decreases chromosome number and changes  generation from 2N to 1N


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