Popular in Biology II
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Laster on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Biology Notes Beginning Exam 2 *Unlike last time, these notes do not cover all the notes for exam 2 (We haven’t covered it all in class yet).* Okay guys, now we get into the really riveting stuff. PLANTS WOOT WOOT… no? Okay. Well please keep in mind that statistically this is the exam most people do badly on. We all know the basic concepts such as photosynthesis, and (I hope) what the leaves, stem, and roots are. But, with this college wibbly wobbly stuff we have to go even deeper. (If you at least recognize where wibbly wobbly comes from you are my person hint: it ends with timey wimey). With that nerdgasm of mine, lets actually start to learn… wow I think I heard you guys moan from here. DEFINITION TIME YAYYYYY!!!! (Guys seriously, I’m being sarcastic I am normal. I hate definitions too don’t call 911 I am fine) Angiosperm flowering plants Plant growth is indeterminate meaning they grow until they DIIIIEEEEEE (unlike humans, we tend to grow then stop… then some of us shrink) Alteration of Generations alternation between the diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) stages of development (I am going to put a diagram in at the end) Sporophyte (2N) “spore” producing plant (This one is easy to remember, spore sporophyte) they spend their life cycle dominantly in the Diploid stage and produce flowers and fruits. MICROscopic (meaning they tend to be large) Gametophyte (1N) I bet ya’ll can’t guess what they produce? GAMETES! These plants are microscopic meaning they tend to be pretty small, aka made with 27 cells. The male gametes are pollen while the female gamete is an embryo sac. (Make your own jokes). 11 Primary / 2 1 secondary (All plants exhibit primary growth but not all exhibit secondary growth) The important plant organs are roots, leaves, and stems (btw leaves and stems make up the shoot) 11 plant growth elongation of plant organs (roots and shoots) 11 xylem is a conducting tissue that distributes water and minerals throughout the plant; vascular 11 Phloem also a conducting tissue, conducts the plants food throughout Epidermis the outer part of a plant that acts as protection Parenchyma (did not make that up) acts as storage for the plant and is the most abundantly found and is part of the cortex (storage support) making up the pith (storage) Collenchyma (Does not work with the colon, I checked) but it does serve to protect and support the plant (awwww… why am I shipping this?) and is found in the cortex Sclerenchyma (seriously, did they just barf up letters) also serves to protect and support the plant (love triangle?) also part of the cortex, however this part of the plant does not elongate 21 Plant growth increases the plant’s diameter and expands the plant organs (only in the roots and stems and are considered to be woody tissues) Like everything else: there are two major groups of angiosperms: Monocots and Dicots. Monocots all exhibit 1 1 growth. Their roots tend to break off from a point and create many branching roots (seen below first plant). In monocots the pith is located in the center and the xylem and phloem surround it alternating in a circle. Dicots 1 1 and 2 1 (mostly) growth, and the dicots contain the largest group of species. In dicots, there is one large root that has many smaller ones branching off of it (second plant below). In dicots the Xylem is found in the center with phloem surrounding it. With a dicot leaf there are 1 – 3 large veins with smaller branches called Net venation (above image 2) Monocot leaf veins tend to be smaller and around the same size that run parallel to one another without touching (above image 1 not really parallel in drawing, but it was the best I found) called parallel venation. At the tips of ALL roots and ships are meristems (cell factories) that constantly go through cell division and enlarge the plant, RAM ( root apical meristem) and SAM (shoot apical meristem) are both primary growth working to elongate the plant (If you watch Supernatural you know Sam is extremely tall, so in plants the SAM works to make the plant taller)… wow I am going all fangirl on these notes… all I need is a Sherlock reference to complete the triad. If you have no idea what I am going on about just ignore me We have all heard that if you count the rings in a tree’s trunk you can figure out how old it is. That is because of the lateral meristems that work in expanding the plant which is part of secondary growth. Not all plants experience expansion (lucky, if I could avoid expanding when I ate junk food I would be quite happy) Roots are mostly found underground and serve as an anchor for the plant as well as storage and absorption of water and the minerals within the soil (Look at figure 35.24 in text stop moaning, you can probably pull it up on google without touching your bio book) There are 4 sections to a root: 1) top section: mature region, oldest 2) region of elongation this is where cells become larger and the roots elongate 3) RAM, region of cell division, the cells are constantly dividing. Root cap semi circular shape at the end of a root that protects it from damage (like running into a rock) *My next upload will continue with the shoot. Life cycle below: from notes given in lecture In case you can’t read the bottom definitions: Syngamy restores chromosome number and changes generation from 1N to 2N. Meiosis decreases chromosome number and changes generation from 2N to 1N
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