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Week 3

by: Victoria Notetaker
Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 02-02-16 & 02-04-16
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311
25 ?




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
02-02-16 Chapter 4: Tissue: The Living Fabric  Started with: Figure 4.3 (e) Stratified Squamous Epithelium (pg. 122) o Where is basement membrane? o Layers: More than one o Shape (upper/outer most layer, book refers to apical layer which may be confused with apical surface): flat  Cells between uppermost layer and basement membrane may not be the same  Stratified squamous o Think of location/function: protection due to the multiple layers it is thick  Would find in the skin  Outer layer of epidermis consists of stratified squamous  Esophagus: protects from matter going down the pharynx causing abrasion  Stratified Columnar Epithelium o Very rare o Many layers o Upper most layer column shape o Don’t need to focus on location and function  Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium o Extremely rare o Many layers o Upper most layer cube shape o Don’t need to focus on location and function  Figure 4.3 (f) Transitional Epithelium (pg. 122) o Changes taking place when looking at this tissue are important o Found in the urinary bladder  Storage place of urine until expelled  Urinary needs to stretch to allow for storage o Many layer: stratified o Uppermost layer shape: balloon or dome like (urinary bladder empty) o Uppermost layer shape: squamous (flat) like (urinary full)  Size of cell reduces and the # of layers reduces to allow for organ to stretch Glandular Epithelium  Gland: structure associated with the synthesis and secretion of a substance o Hormones o Enzymes  Glands have 2 major types: defined by the location the product is released o Endocrine: release products into the blood or lymphatic fluid (internally)  Usually multicellular  Duct-less glands  Not only made up of epithelial cells o Exocrine: releases product externally like a body cavity  May be unicellular or multicellular 2  Unicellular : Goblet cell Figure 4.4 Goblet Cell (pg. 124) o Inward invagination  Mucous cell: produces mucous  What are diff between  Respiratory system  Modification in digestion system  Release product by process of exocytosis  Figure 4.5 Multicellular exocrine glands (pg. 125)  Basic components: o Secretory units  Branching or single  Shape:  Tubular: tube-like  Alveolar: sac-like o duct: leads product from secretory unit to environment  branched or not branched  no branching = simple  branched = compound  Both cells associated with the steps of synthesis and production of mucin  Secretory vesicles: help in releasing mucin into extra cellular fluid o Typically in top portion of cell 3 o Goblet: glass with wide cup and a stem (wine glass) o ONLY difference shape between unicellular and multicellular  Mucous: lubricating medium  Figure 4.6- Chief modes of secretion in human exocrine glands (pg. 125)  Also classify by function o Merocrine glands  Product surrounded by secretory vesicles  Fuse and expel through exocytosis  Nothing happens to the merocrine cell o Holocrine glands  Production of product in secretory cell  Product releases through ruptured cell  Contains product and dead cell fragments  Cell dies  Cells regenerate mitosis o Apocrine  Synthesis of product in secretory cells in secretory unit  Accumulation of secretory vesicles under apical surface  Apical surface detaches and releases product  Healing process takes place after release Connective Tissue 4  From the name make the assumption this tissue is associated with connecting tissue but NOT the case  Huge variety  Shared aspects of all connective tissues 1. All connective tissue mesenchyme tissue (embryonic tissue) 2. Degrees of vascularity: blood supply varies  Rich blood supply: Fatty tissue (adipose tissue)  Medium: Dense regular connective tissue  Low/No Blood supply: Cartlidge 3. Extracellular matrix: non-living material (no cells) fills the space between connective tissues 3 structural elements  Ground substance  Interstitial fluid: tissue fluid that fills space between other elements  Cell adhesion proteins: facilitate Extracellular adherence of different elements to each Matrix other o Ex. fibroblast (Refer to Figure 4.7 Areolar connective tissue [pg. 127])  proteglycans  Fiber element  Cellular element 5 02-04-16 Chapter 4: Tissue: The Living Fabric  Will provide material for Exam 1 Thursday, 02-11-16 at the end of the lecture. May use Tuesday 02-09 to cover remaining material, as a result there will be a bonus of some sort. Connective Tissue  Shared aspects of ALL connective tissues 1. All connective tissue mesenchyme tissue (embryonic tissue) 2. Degrees of vascularity: blood supply varies  Rich blood supply: Fatty tissue (adipose tissue)  Medium: Dense regular connective tissue  Low/No Blood supply: Cartlidge 3. Extracellular matrix: non-living material (no cells) fills the space between cellular elements 3 structural elements  Ground substance Extracellular Matrix  Fiber element  Ground substance  Interstitial fluid: tissue fluid that fills space between other elements  Cell adhesion proteins: facilitate adherence of cells to different elements o Fibronectin o Laminin 6  Proteoglycans: Refer to figure below (sent to email by Dr. Al-Dawhi) 1. Proteoglycan  Core protein: major component (blue strand)  Glycosaminoglycan (GAGs): negatively charged polysaccharides attached to the core protein (pink things on core protein) 2. Proteoglycans tend to aggregate and form proteoglycan aggregates (a group or cluster)  Link protein: link themselves to the hyaluronic acid (green dots)  More proteoglycan aggregates present the ground substance is going to be viscous (thicker) 1. Strength- higher likeliness in cartilage or bone  Most abundant glycosaminoglycan in cartilage: is chondroitin sulfate: IMPORTANT 7  (Refer to Figure 4.7 Areolar connective tissue [pg. 127]) WILL BE USED AS PROTOTYPE  Fiber element: 3 types  Collagen fiber o 2 important characteristics:  Tough fiber  Most abundant in collagen fibers o Made up of protein collagen o Formed be release of molecules of collagen creating a collagen fibril  Fibrils bundle together to make one collagen fiber o High tensile strength: has resistance to stressing forces or stress  Elastic fiber: o Made up of protein elastin o Rubber-band like attribute  Stretch ability and recoiling: fiber can stretch and return to original shape o Found at base of large artery (aorta)  Reticular fiber o Made up of protein collagen  Different chemical structural and form than collagen of that in collagen fibers 8 o Exist in extensive branching networks in the tissue o Reticular- refers to networks o Found in background of lymphatic organs  Spleen and lymph nodes  Cellular element:  Resident cell type: a cell that usually exists in a particular tissue o usually exist in 2 forms  Immature form (-blasts)  Functions: synthesis, production and release of ground substance and fibers of the tissue  Characterized by it’s capabilities o Continuous mitotic division  As soon as it is done with function it will change to mature cell type  Mature form (-cytes):  Cannot go through mitotic division  If tissue gets damages it can revert to immature form and repair tissue 9 o Sometimes conditions and not damage  Connective tissue breaks down into proper and special  Connective Tissue Proper 1. Resident cell for ALL connective tissue proper: fibroblast (immature)  -blast ‘stem cells’  Fibro- ‘fiber’ + -blast ‘forming’ = fiber forming cells 2. Fibrocyte (mature)  2 subdivisions: 1. Loose: arrangement of fibers in tissues  Areolar: Figure 4.8 (a) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar (pg. 129)  Areolar: small open space  Will see all 3 types of fibers  Will see all types of cells discussed above o Predominant cell: fibroblast (immature) o Function: packaging material, wraps and cushions organs  Lamina propria: epithelium of mucous membranes for body cavities open to the environment o Ex digestive and respiratory  Adipose: Figure 4.8 (b) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose (pg. 130) 10  All kinds of fibers  All cells  Predominant cell: adipocyte  Lipid droplet big enough it pushes nuclei to side  Very vascular (rich blood supply) to reinforce energy storage o Energy storage- transfer energy to blood  Located between other tissues: shock absorber  Insulator because it prevents heat loss, poor heat conductor  Figure shows: White adipose tissue  Newborn babies have brown adipose tissue o Same structure o Function differs: used for production of heat in newborns due to no shiver response  Reticular: Figure 4.8 (c) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, reticular (pg. 131)  One type of fiber only: reticular fiber o Extensive branching networks  Background stroma of lymphatic system  Spleen 11  Reticular cells: usually fibroblast o Residing on reticular fibers thus the name reticular cells 2. Dense  Regular  Irregular  Elastic  Special Connective Tissue 1. Cartilage  Resident cell: chondroblasts (immature)  Chondrocytes (mature) 2. Bone  Resident cell: osteoblasts (immature)  Osteocytes (mature) 3. Blood  Resident cell: hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)  EXCEPTIONS: o resides in red bone marrow NOT blood o NEVER changes to mature form: will ALWAYS be a stem cell until death of organism o Has nothing to do with ground substance or fiber production  ONLY produces blood cells 12  Adipose cells: fat cell filled with lipid droplet  Mast cells: connective tissue cells mainly characterized by presence membrane bound sac-like structures called granules containing histamine (remember histamine for testing) o Can bind to immunoglobulin E: an antibody o Histamine induces inflammation  Associated with allergies  Neutrophil, eosinophils and lymphocytes: white blood cells o Found in tissue because capable of performing function of attacking pathogens in circulation and out  Macrophage: white blood cell o Nothing but a monocyte  Monocyte leaves circulation and becomes macrophage  Enzymes activate causing stronger phagocytic capabilities  After leaves circulation it changes shape  cytoplastic extensions to capture pathogens o presents parts of antigens to T lymphocytes  antigen presenting cells  1 exam connective tissue proper only not cartilage, bone, or blood 13  02-09-16: Will cover dense connective tissue proper and membranes 14


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