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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
020216 Prenatal Development Prenatal Learning? Is it possible? Study 1 Lee Salk: newborn babies Gr1 listen heartbeat 72 bpm (resting) 70% gained weight 38% crying time Grp2 listen to heartbeat 120 bpm (distress)became so distressed they could not be consoled and dropped from study for ethics Grp3 listen to everyday sounds 38% gained weight 60% crying time o Presumably fetuses had learned an association in the womb between the heartrate and the experience that coincided with the rate o Primitive association may be possible in newborns, can’t infer babies can associate emotion yet. Ex. I watched Opera during pregnancy and now baby only calm when I play Opera. (anecdotal observation) Gave example of son Joshua o Had to alternate every two hours holding him in order to keep him from crying o Bought tape from the Tot Shop: Baby go to sleep tape from works for newborns Plays hush little baby and three blind mice “Sound of a resting heartbeat scientifically proven” o Tape didn’t work: looked further into research found 4 follow up studies failed to replicate findings Study 2 DeCasper • Eventually published in science • The Cat in Hat book • Recruited group of women 12 pregnant 7 ½ months • Read same 3 min passage 2 times a day for 6 wks. • Make sure fetus was awake • Moving • After birth headphones with special pacifier with pressure inducer sensor which would trigger mother reading same passage (suck fast pace) other woman voice reading passage (suck slower pace) • Tended to suck at rate to trigger mother voice reading familiar passage instead of stranger, learned association with mother voice and story To address possible confounds of natural sucking rate ½ babies needed to suck fast for mother and other ½ had to suck slow for mother’s voice. Presumption: babies made an association between mother’s voice and story. Only a familiar passage if they had learned passage in womb o Found happened more often than due to chance that babies would suck at a rate for mother’s voice Repeat study but this time fast rate was for familiar passage slow rate for unfamiliar passage, tend to suck for familiar passage. Appears may be some primitive capacity for prenatal learning in later stages of The competent infant: no one had though infants could learn, see, think, so on Just a bundle of nerves when born. Renee Vanderkloof: California obstetrician proposed correlation between brain development and classical music o Training starts at 5 month of pregnancy When baby kicked to push back and say good baby good baby When done kicking became more frequent @ 7 month associate vocabulary with touch Say “Rub” with tummy rub “Shake” with shaking tummy st o Claims: babies exposed spoke 1 word earlier, two word sentences earlier, and demonstrated object permanence earlier o Confounds: expectationsspend more time postnatal to aid learning, mothers participating would be the mothers already anticipating spending more postnatal time with baby Teratogens: Environmental sources of birth defects Up until 1960’s believed placenta protected developing embryo from all sorts of harmful substances Thalidomide: (19561961 Europe): antimorning sickness drug o Worked in animal models o Very observant pediatrician noticed clusters of gross abnormalities Look into and identified women who birthed the defects had taken drug Drug administered early in pregnancy during structural development of fetus Major structures develop in embryonic period Alcohol o FAS: Fatal Alcohol Syndrome 2 Alcohol crosses placenta, enzymes needed to break down alcohol not present Operational definition of heavy drinkers: 5+ drinks a day Characteristics: small heads, smoother brains less convolutions, congenital heart disease, facial malformations: eyes spread and flatter nose, hyperactivity, lowered intelligence Cigarettes: low birth rate Drugs Radiation Rubella (German measles) o Early stages: structural malformations like heart o Later stages: brain affected Mercury o Gross malformations Stress o How can stress be a teratogen? 020416 Prenatal Development (Finalized) Birth and the newborn/Infancy: Perceptual & Cognitive Development (Beginning) Teratogens: Environmental sources of birth defects Stress o How can you design an experiment to test this? Discussed possible designs Study took pregnant monkey and restrained her in chair then had a sudden noise paired with sudden visual cue as stress factor o Blood flow was shifted from fetus to extremity like fight or flight Blood levels in fetus brain and oxygen went down Another study examined the records of babies born to: o Mothers who’s spouse died in WW2: 14% behavioral disorders as an adult 3 o Mothers who’s spouses died within the yr. after birth: 6.5% behavior disorders as an adult Strength of this study lied in the extensive record keeping on these subjects Assumption both groups of women had the same diet, inability to access cigarettes, everything same except stress. If you read study revealed association between prenatal stress and behavior disorders in adulthood: it would sound overwhelming o Study did not show 100% in prenatal group and 0 in postnatal so how relevant is it. Birth and the newborn/Infancy: Perceptual & Cognitive Development (Beginning) Birth18/24 Months Was believed babies were functionally blind Gives example of son’s visit to pediatrician o 5 month at pediatrician o Cried from removing shirt and not pain How valid is crying for measuring pain? “The world of the newborn is a blooming, buzzing confusion.” William o Don’t discriminate one sound or visual stimuli from another The Apgar Scale: assess physical status of newborn Typically given immediately after birth then shortly after o Heart rate bpm 2: 100 or more 1: less then 100 0: not detectable o Respiratory effort 2: strong cry and breathing 1: irregular or shallow breathing 0: not breathing o Reflex irritability 4 2: vigorous response 1: weak response 0: no response o Muscle tone 2: resilient 1: lack of resistance 0: complete flaccidity o Skin color 2: pink all over 1: partially pink 0: bluish or yellowish Reflexes: o Stepping motion: when you place foot on a flat surface and they begin to make a stepping motion o Moro: o Grasp: powerful enough to lift baby off table but no voluntary capacity o Sucking: o Rooting: o Babinski: Infancy Research Techniques Habituation: reduction or cessation of responding after repeated presentation of a stimulus o Ex. Play /p/ over headphones sucking rate increases, when rate begins decrease (habituation), the play /b/ sucking rate increases again (dishabituation, if baby discerns difference) by 1month of age babies have capacity to distinguish /p/ from /b/. o Ex. Measure heartbeat when showing open circle until habituation occurs the show an open circle with a black dot and dishabituation occurs. Preferential Looking: looking at one object longer or more than another o Ex. Fantz study: if baby could not see the baby would not show any preference from one image to the other. Most preferred image was a human face. 5 Additional research done by someone else and scramble elements of human face. Found same amount of attention to human face and distorted face. Human face has many angles and sharply contrasting features, which is what actually attracted baby’s attention. 3 months show preference for human face o Rods (vision at night) and cones (colors) present at birth, physically vision possible. o Lens not fully developed o Newborns very nearsighted o Ex. Depth perception innate knowledge? Visual cliff: Platform with a 3ft drop and plexiglass by 10 month will not crawl off Violation of Expectation: Reinforcement: Used to shed light on infants for centuries 6
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