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Week 3

by: Victoria Notetaker
Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 02-02-16 & 02-04-16
Life Cycle Developmemt
Dr. Lawrence Cohn
Class Notes
psyc 2310
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
02­02­16 Prenatal Development Prenatal Learning? Is it possible?  Study 1 Lee Salk: newborn babies  Gr1 listen heartbeat 72 bpm (resting) 70% gained weight 38% crying time  Grp2 listen to heartbeat 120 bpm (distress)­became so distressed they could not be consoled  and dropped from study for ethics  Grp3 listen to everyday sounds 38% gained weight 60% crying time o Presumably fetuses had learned an association in the womb between the heartrate  and the experience that coincided with the rate o Primitive association may be possible in newborns, can’t infer babies can  associate emotion yet.  Ex. I watched Opera during pregnancy and now baby only calm when I  play Opera. (anecdotal observation)  Gave example of son Joshua o Had to alternate every two hours holding him in order to keep him from crying o Bought tape from the Tot Shop: Baby go to sleep tape from­ works for newborns  Plays hush little baby and three blind mice  “Sound of a resting heartbeat scientifically proven” o Tape didn’t work: looked further into research found 4 follow up studies failed to  replicate findings Study 2 DeCasper • Eventually published in science • The Cat in Hat book • Recruited group of women 12 pregnant 7 ½ months • Read same 3 min passage 2 times a day for 6 wks. • Make sure fetus was awake • Moving • After birth headphones with special pacifier with pressure inducer sensor which  would trigger mother reading same passage (suck fast pace) other woman voice  reading passage (suck slower pace) • Tended to suck at rate to trigger mother voice reading familiar passage instead of  stranger, learned association with mother voice and story  To address possible confounds of natural sucking rate ½ babies needed to suck fast for  mother and other ½ had to suck slow for mother’s voice.  Presumption: babies made an association between mother’s voice and story.  Only a  familiar passage if they had learned passage in womb o Found happened more often than due to chance that babies would suck at a rate  for mother’s voice Repeat study but this time fast rate was for familiar passage slow rate for unfamiliar passage,  tend to suck for familiar passage. Appears may be some primitive capacity for prenatal learning in later stages of  The competent infant: no one had though infants could learn, see, think, so on Just a bundle of nerves when born.  Renee Vanderkloof: California obstetrician proposed correlation between brain  development and classical music o Training starts at 5 month of pregnancy  When baby kicked to push back and say good baby good baby  When done kicking became more frequent  @ 7   month associate vocabulary with touch  Say “Rub” with tummy rub  “Shake” with shaking tummy st o Claims: babies exposed spoke 1  word earlier, two word sentences earlier, and  demonstrated object permanence earlier o Confounds: expectations­spend more time postnatal to aid learning, mothers  participating would be the mothers already anticipating spending more postnatal  time with baby Teratogens:  Environmental sources of birth defects  Up until 1960’s believed placenta protected developing embryo from all sorts of harmful  substances  Thalidomide: (1956­1961 Europe): anti­morning sickness drug o Worked in animal models o Very observant pediatrician noticed clusters of gross abnormalities   Look into and identified women who birthed the defects had taken drug  Drug administered early in pregnancy during structural development of  fetus  Major structures develop in embryonic period  Alcohol o FAS: Fatal Alcohol Syndrome 2  Alcohol crosses placenta, enzymes needed to break down alcohol not  present  Operational definition of heavy drinkers: 5+ drinks a day  Characteristics: small heads, smoother brains­ less convolutions,  congenital heart disease, facial malformations: eyes spread and flatter  nose, hyperactivity, lowered intelligence  Cigarettes: low birth rate  Drugs  Radiation  Rubella (German measles) o Early stages: structural malformations like heart o Later stages: brain affected  Mercury o Gross malformations  Stress o How can stress be a teratogen? 02­04­16 Prenatal Development (Finalized) Birth and the newborn/Infancy: Perceptual &  Cognitive Development (Beginning) Teratogens:  Environmental sources of birth defects  Stress o How can you design an experiment to test this?  Discussed possible designs  Study took pregnant monkey and restrained her in chair then had a sudden noise paired  with sudden visual cue as stress factor o Blood flow was shifted from fetus to extremity like fight or flight  Blood levels in fetus brain and oxygen went down  Another study examined the records of babies born to: o Mothers who’s spouse died in WW2: 14% behavioral disorders as an adult 3 o Mothers who’s spouses died within the yr. after birth: 6.5% behavior disorders as  an adult  Strength of this study lied in the extensive record keeping on these subjects  Assumption both groups of women had the same diet, inability to access cigarettes,  everything same except stress.  If you read study revealed association between prenatal stress and behavior disorders in  adulthood: it would sound overwhelming o Study did not show 100% in prenatal group and 0 in postnatal so how relevant is  it. Birth and the newborn/Infancy: Perceptual & Cognitive Development (Beginning) Birth­18/24 Months  Was believed babies were functionally blind  Gives example of son’s visit to pediatrician o 5 month at pediatrician o Cried from removing shirt and not pain  How valid is crying for measuring pain?  “The world of the newborn is a blooming, buzzing confusion.” ­William o Don’t discriminate one sound or visual stimuli from another  The Apgar Scale: assess physical status of newborn Typically given immediately after birth then shortly after o Heart rate bpm  2: 100 or more  1: less then 100  0: not detectable o Respiratory effort  2: strong cry and breathing  1: irregular or shallow breathing  0: not breathing o Reflex irritability 4  2: vigorous response  1: weak response  0: no response o Muscle tone  2: resilient  1: lack of resistance  0: complete flaccidity o Skin color  2: pink all over  1: partially pink  0: bluish or yellowish  Reflexes: o Stepping motion: when you place foot on a flat surface and they begin to make a  stepping motion o Moro: o Grasp: powerful enough to lift baby off table but no voluntary capacity o Sucking: o Rooting: o Babinski: Infancy Research Techniques  Habituation: reduction or cessation of responding after repeated presentation of a  stimulus o Ex. Play /p/ over headphones sucking rate increases, when rate begins decrease  (habituation), the play /b/ sucking rate increases again (dishabituation, if baby  discerns difference)  by 1month of age babies have capacity to distinguish /p/ from /b/. o Ex. Measure heartbeat when showing open circle until habituation occurs the  show an open circle with a black dot and dishabituation occurs.  Preferential Looking: looking at one object longer or more than another o Ex. Fantz study: if baby could not see the baby would not show any preference  from one image to the other. Most preferred image was a human face. 5  Additional research done by someone else and scramble elements of  human face. Found same amount of attention to human face and distorted  face. Human face has many angles and sharply contrasting features, which is what actually attracted baby’s attention. 3 months show preference for  human face o Rods (vision at night) and cones (colors) present at birth, physically vision  possible. o Lens not fully developed o Newborns very nearsighted o Ex. Depth perception innate knowledge? Visual cliff: Platform with a 3ft drop and plexiglass by 10 month will not crawl off  Violation of Expectation:  Reinforcement:  Used to shed light on infants for centuries 6


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