Political Science 103- Chapter 16 NOTES
Political Science 103- Chapter 16 NOTES 13309 - PLS 103 - 02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renée on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 13309 - PLS 103 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Yi Zhao in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Issues in World Politics in Political Science at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Political Science 103 February 3, 2016 Chapter 16 (p.299-316) *** All notes ardirectly from the book of Political Science by Rod Hague and Martin Harrop*** ***None of the writing is my work, it is an outline of the notable information from the book*** Presidential Government: Parameters for this government: o The elected president guides the government The president is elected by the whole country o The president has fixed terms as well as the assembly o Little overlap of executive and legislative power o The president is seen as the head of state United States: o Where this type of government first emerged, created by the founders o President is secure in his office once elected o The president can not dissolve Congress like a prime minister can with parliament o The most relevant powers of the president are shared with Congress such as Power to declare war Making treaties and government appointments Both can override the other’s decision o The separation of power is more specifically a separation of institutions o Presidents must be able to persuade people Going Washington: When the American president deals with members of Congress by proposing legislature Going public: When the American president exploits media coverage in attempt to influence public opinion o The USA does not have a line-item veto Line-item veto: the ability to override a specific part of a bill without rejecting it completely Brazil o Less successful than the U.S. due to mixing the proportional system and multiparty system o Abilities of the president Issue decrees Declaring bills to be urgent Initiating bills in Congress Proposing a budget month by month o Also struggles with legislatures that have their own agenda, results in the President having a harder time persuading congress o Party discipline is weak therefor has many different parties Building coalitions is embraced because of this Strengths of presidential government o The fixity of presidential term provides stability which prevents the chance of governmental collapse o Winning presidency is usually due to overall support throughout the country o Provides the country with a symbolic person that represents the nation o Separation of power promotes limited government Risks of presidential government o Right or Left politics can cause political instability o A frustrated president may turn into a dictator o Presidents have the potential to overstep their bounds Parliamentary Government: The executive in parliamentary government is directly connected to the assembly o Ministers are picked by their rank in the assembly o Parties emerge from the assembly Executive has power to dissolve parliament Executive power includes a cabinet and prime minister A ceremonial head of state is generally someone else besides the prime minister Two variations o Majority government Most of parliament has one party making up the majority o Minority government Coalitions create one party that is made up of multiple different views Types of coalition forms: Majority coalition is when two or more parties making the majority up Minority coalition is when formal coalitions occur and they still lack parliamentary majority Single party minority is when the largest party forms parliament Usually, minority administrations have the support of other parties in parliament Parliamentary coalition: Contains parties that agree to support the government in the assembly without needing to participate in executive office o Goal: to ensure political stability by incorporating many views Types of coalition: o Minimal winning: Contains the smallest number of parties that can secure a parliamentary majority o Oversized: Contains more parties than the minimum winning coalition o Grand: Formed by two leading parties, generally of opposing sides o Connected: Only contains parties that are similar to each other Usually coalitions only last for a few years at a time The governing is done in collaboration of the prime minister, cabinet, and government ministers Dominant policy makers in… o Cabinet government: discussion in cabinet determines the policy o Prime ministerial government: The prime minister is the dominant figure dealing directly with the government ministers o Ministerial government: Individual ministers operate with little direction from the prime minister or the cabinet Heads of State and Parliamentary Government: o The parliamentary government is applauded for separation of the dignified and efficient characteristics Dignified: Parts of the constitution that upholds and stimulates the reverence of the people Efficient: Parts of the constitution that works and rules the people o Most heads of state are elected by popular vote or by parliament Semi-Presidential Government Mixes both forms of government so that there is a prime minister that is appointed by the president o The prime minister carries out general every day government o The president oversees all government activity and deals with foreign affairs
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