HDFS 1070 Week 3 Notes
HDFS 1070 Week 3 Notes HDFS 1070
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Lifespan Journey Lecture Notes 2/3 Prenatal Development Ages and Stages o There are distinct differences between individuals in different stages o There are important developments within a stage that contribute in a direct way to the unique ways in which people develop o Framework issues lay out a platform for unique development Bioecological Framework and Development o Individual factors o Contextualecological/environmental factors Different cultural factors o Time Ex. The Zika virus in the media talks about how it affects prenatal development (possible birth defects) Developmental Tasks and Development Milestones o Developmental tasks are milestones in development because serve as a foundation o Epigenetic principle Critical developments in any stage of development serve as foundation. Continuity is probable in every stage’s development but change is also possible. Early stages of development will impact in a probable way on further development yet change is also possible. Prenatal Individual and Contextual Factors shape lifespan development Genetic code of the individual and their trajectory of development o Individual unique development started at the day of conception o Fetuses are mature at 37 weeks, which is why when born at or after the fetus is considered to be mature; if born before considered premature o At the moment of conception, your genetic code is established (can be changed by environmental factors pre and postnatally) Factors that will forever influence your unique pattern of development Mutual Regulation: the interaction between genes and the environment o The genetic code can be changed by factors in your environment after birth (ex. Light stimulation may alter some basic biology) o The genotype isn’t as important as the phenotype others react to your phenotype, not your genotype A gene is a portion of DNA that codes for a specific trait and is positioned on a specific place on the chromosome Genotype vs. phenotype o Genotype: the genetic profile/code o Phenotype: the external expression of the gene; the physical/external manifestation of those underlying genes Genetic factors that influence the path of development critically Sex (versus gender) o Different like course and development for unique individuals (ex. Transgender individuals variability that plays out at the moment of conception and birth) o Every time an individual deviates from the norm, the probability of social and emotional adjustment problems happening in their lives are raised (because they navigate a very different environment, not because of genetics) Ex. Suicide rates and drug rates are much higher in transgender individuals when compared to others because of the social environment they live in o Assigned Sex Gender Identity Sexual Identity (orientation) Distinctly different for every individual o At the moment of conception, your biological sex is established. There are a small percentage of children who are born where it is not clear whether or not they are male or female your course of development is influenced greatly by this because your environment reacts differently to you o Gender Identity This is experienced early in childhood (4 years of age). It is culturally constructed and represents what society thinks you should do as a boy or as a girl. Gender identity drives from the sex assigned and to the acceptance of that sex You develop in ways according to what society thinks (ex. Girls should be invested in caretaking and nurturing while boys should always be active) Individuals develop an opposite gender sometimes. This distinction is important because when research is conducted, usually there is a question to state your gender. If researchers are interested in gender identity, they should ask what your assigned sex was and what you identify as. o Sexual Identity (orientation) What one identifies as being attracted to There is a predisposition for sexual orientation in genes Individuals at birth who are assigned male and identify as male and are homosexual are unique when compared to individuals who are assigned male and identify as male and are heterosexual Today’s society is more embracing of individuality and deviations from the norm Individual Traits o Your phenotype and influences how people interact with you. Some are physically attractive, and others are not according to culture/society and other individuals. (ex. Babies if really cute, treated differently from a baby who is not as physically attractive) o Beauty/physical attractiveness and indicators of beauty are culturally specific. (ex. In the US, being heavier as a woman is not as valued as other cultures in terms of beauty. Therefore, it results in your environment being different) Body type Ex. Suppose there is a boy with a lot of fat tissue in chest teased for having “boobs” Girls without developed breasts at the expected age are treated differently than girls who have developed breasts Culturally specific! Hair color Eye color Height Birth anomalies (35% of births) o Ex. Down’s Syndrome behavior and physical manifestations that deviate from the population. In the 60s and 70s people with Down’s were put into facilities because it was believed they couldn’t live in society o Miscarriages When there is a genetically damaged fetus, the percentage of survival is slim to none because usually it is spontaneously aborted High rates of miscarriages where there are ecological problems such as nearby waste dumping sites This is an example of an unsanctioned death because don’t really acknowledge that it is a death Does not help that society encourages parents to mourn the death of a “perfect” child, since the child was not perfect due to fatal genetic mishaps Temperament: There are certain behavioral sensory motor predispositions and tendencies that track back to your genetic makeup: behavioral, social, and emotional tendencies: expressions of temperament. Manifestations of behavior are influenced by genetics temperament is different than personality because of this! Activity level o Some are more active than others (not talking about hyperactivity). Ex. Some are always doing things while other just want to sit on the couch; they are like that from birth. The baby’s temperament creates an environment in the family. A baby that gets into everything creates a different environment than a baby that is not very active. Rhythmicity o Every individual sleeps and eats at different cycles. As a baby, you go at your own rhythm, and then when you are older you are molded by society to eat at certain times o Ex. Some people are morning people while others are not Approachwithdrawal (sociability/shyness) o Shyness is a temperament, not a social anxiety disorder. Shy people are somewhat introverted and more easily overwhelmed by a lot of social activity so they withdraw from it. A shy child grows up in a different environment because of how parents and others respond to him or her (ex. Teachers and parents). Adaptability o Some are gowiththeflow people while others stick to their schedule religiously. Some babies go with the flow and others cannot (ex. A young child is upset that didn’t go to the beach when told they would not considered a gowiththeflow person) Intensity of Reaction o Some have better hearing, smelling or tasting than others genetically different in how they react to external stimuli. (ex. Some walk into a room with a bad smell and cant stand it while others are completely fine with staying in the room) (ex. Some babies will giggle if pinched while others will scream if pinched if you have a baby that is really reactive to stimuli, you have to parent differently!)
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