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ch 4- Working memory

by: Sami Schultz

ch 4- Working memory exp3604c

Marketplace > Florida State University > exp3604c > ch 4 Working memory
Sami Schultz
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture for chapter 4 on working memory.
Cognitive psychology
Dr Jong-Sung Yoon
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology, cognitive, working memory, memory
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sami Schultz on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to exp3604c at Florida State University taught by Dr Jong-Sung Yoon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
 Memory is the retention of information over time o Persistence of learning o Encoding- paying attention o Storage- keeping information o Retrieval- recalling information  Short term memory- brief memory for material that you are currently processing o Keeps information active and accessible o Capacity of STM is 7 items  Long term memory- memory for experiences & information that have accumulated during your life o Large capacity o Anything other than what we are processing in our STM o  Sensory memory o Extremely brief sensory activation o Much sensory input never enters conscious processing o Iconic memory-visual o Echoic memory- auditory o Part of perception rather than actual memory  Rehearsal: repetition strategy that maintains information in short-term (working) memory  Decay: one way to lose information from STM  Serial position effect- o Primary effect  Better recall for items at beginning of lsit  More rehearsal  Stored into LTM o Recency Effecy  Better recall for items at the end of the list  Interference o Proactive  Many similar events that happened earlier reduce memory for current event o Retroactive  Working memory o Often more interesting o Very predictive of other cognitive abilities: intelligence, problem solving, etc o Three functions  Brief memory for material that you are currently processing  Helps coordinate ongoing mental activities  Keeps information active and accessible  Working memory approach o Our immediate memory is a multipart system that temporarily holds and manipulates information while we perform cognitive tasks o Memory span + complex span tasks  Phonological Loop o Processes a limited number of sounds for a short period of time o Also active during subvocal rehearsal process o Make fewer errors when the letters do not sound similar, relative to when they do o Converted visual letters to a sound based code  Visuospatial sketchpad o Processes both visual and spatial information o Also known as short term visual memory o Allows you to store visual appearance and relative position and store visual info encoded from verbal stimuli  Central executive o Integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer and long term memory o Plays role in: focusing attention, selecting strategies, transforming information and coordinating behavior o Suppressing irrelevant information  Episodic buffer o Baddeley added this fourth component o Temporary storehouse that can hold and combine information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and long term memory  Importance of working memory o Very important for functioning in the world  Solving problems  Arithmetic  Sentence comprehension  Remembering information  Limitations in working memory makes this harder  Christopher MacDonald o Tested participants with major depression o Phonological loop o Visuospatial sketchpad o Central executive o The participants with depression showed poor performance  Long term memory o Explicit memory  Semantic memory- knowledge about the world and about words and other factual information  Episodic memory- memories for events that happened to you o Implicit memory  Procedural- knowledge about how to do something


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