Note 25 for HISTORY 112 at UMass
Note 25 for HISTORY 112 at UMass
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 25 12403 Islam and modernization Pictures photographs of Muhammad Abduh and Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini Western imperialism precipitated a religious as well as a political crisis Muslim subjugation by Christian Europe con rmed not only the decline of Muslim power but also the apparent loss of divine favor and guidance J0hn L Esposito Challenges to Islamic world lCrusades c 10951291 lMongols 13th14th centuries lEuropean colonial expansion lSouth and Southeast Asia 17th century lMiddle East and Africa 19th20th century lModerniz ation industrialization secularization in colonial context Colonialism in Islamic world Picture map showing extent of European colonization in North Africa and the Middle East ca 1900 Modernizing impulses and reactions lSecularists separation of religion and politics on Western model lIslamic Modernism eg Muhammad Abduh and Muhammad Iqbal lIslamists or fundamentalists eg Sayyid Qutb and Muslim Brotherhood Kev ideas of Islamic modernism lTawhid unity of God rejection of secularization lInner core worship and outer layers social regulations lAcceptance of modern science linked to the Islamic rational tradition lPurification of Islam from medieval additions eg Su saints lReinterpretation of social norms Abduh on monogamy lQur an 43 If you are afraid that you will not treat orphans justly then marry such women as may seem good to you two three or four If you feel that you will not act justly then one lQur an 4129 You will never manage to deal equitably with women no matter how hard you try Definino fundamentalism a DrototVDe lScripture is literal absolute truth lReligion is basis of personal and communal identity not just part lVocal rejection of secular culture lDramatic eschatologies millennarianism apocalyptic clash of good and evil lMythologiz ation of enemies lMass appeal IOVERALL reaction to fragmentary character of modern life and identity What fundamentalism is NOT lNot inherently violent lNot necessarily opposed to technology lNot a return to the past despite reaction to modernity Example Daudi Bohra community of Ismaili Shi ites in India devoted to Islamic values use modern technology and education grounded in eternal revelation Islamism is it fundamentalism I Neofoundational Smart Neorevivalist Esposito lQur an and hadith traditions are authoritative lSociety must be structured on Islamic principles lSecularism has failed bringing social ills Western reality often compared With Islamic ideal lWorld is divided into believers and unbelievers IBUT Political aspects of Islamism lMass appeal is partly response to 1 authoritarian government and 2 social services provided by groups eg Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt illegal but active under other names lMost popular among underemployed young men lApart from ideologues Islamism is often the expression of more general political resentment
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