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Chapter 3

by: Melanie Rios
Melanie Rios
Penn State
GPA 3.5
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This has all of chapter 3's notes with some key points mentioned during lecture
Psychology 243
Frederick Brown
Class Notes
psych, Positive Psychology




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Rios on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 243 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Frederick Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Psychology 243 in Behavioral Sciences at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chapter 3: Assertive Health Behaviors: Our immune System, Nutrition, and Drinking Part 1: The issue Protecting Our Body’s Immune System A. The Purpose of Life 1. Living Physically Healthy › We are in control of way we function physically and mentally through the things we choose to eat/drink, our efforts to physical addictions, our sleeping habits, and our exercise habits 1. Assertiveness › We need to assert (claim) “our rights to be happy, active, productive, and whole as long as possible.” This is important to protect our immune system and personal health › Act to prevent problems rather than being forced to deal with them after they have already occurred (proactive, not reactive) › Assertive health behaviors: be proactive to maintain health, and prevent problems - Good Information › Educational promoters spread health information because they want healthy citizens › There is plenty of free and easily accessed information out there › Good sources: National Health Information Center, telephone hotlines, medical school newsletters - Not-so-good information › Many ads try to sell us products that they claim will keep us healthy, happy and young; however, their profits are not always honestly earned › Questionable sources: infomercials, diet pills, special equipment A. The Immune System › Health maintenance system that protects us from harm › Being knowledgeable and making effective choices about our health is an assertive way to keep our immune system functioning successfully - Dependent on our behaviors: eating/drinking, sleep/rest, exercise, and states of mind › Very important for: - Psychology to resist psychological stressors - Medicine for physical disease resistance and healing › Immune system attached and destroyed by HIV virus and AIDS B. What We Eat Makes Us What We Are 1. Eating Is Learned › The idea of which foods were good or bad was based of there value for survival this information was then passed on (trial and error) 2. Traditional Eating › Back in the day, fresh produce was hard to come by for ~6 months. The solution was to preserve foods by heavily salting/spicing/pickling and then drying or canning them › Long-term eating of these preservatives slowly poisoned people’s health › Even now with greater availability of fresh foods, companies are advertising tastier, but artificial foods with little to no nutritional value for profit 3. Nutritious Eating › Physically, we are literally built from the food that we eat › Nutrition- the study of the value of food on the body which determines the amt of daily energy available to us, how effective our body keeps working, and how resistant to disease our immune system is. › Eating the right foods and strength building exercise can slow the aging process C. Healthy Food › How Healthy Food Has Changed - Major food companies and industries want to make profit, not increase nutrion - In general, food is no longer locally grown; instead they are sold globally, requiring artificial supplementations and preservatives to make to the shelves in grocery stores - “Organic” or “free range” (all natural) foods still exist, but at a price. › Do the benefits of natural foods out way the costs? - Dangerous and infected foods: (E. coli, salmonella & botulism) › Improper storage, preparation, and cooking can be lethal › Much less now than in former generations › Junk Foods - These foods are heavily advertised and are making absurd profits off of making people overweight and nutrient deficient - Coupons to save on these poor quality foods are overly-available to help them “save money” on food that is cheaply made in the first place a. Food additives › Additives were designed to maintain shelf-life (increase palatability and…). They have made food safer by keeping our food fresh, but they also have some unwanted effects b. Fat, salt, sugar › Manufactures add them to increase sales and profits and by themselves there is nothing particularly wrong with them c. Fat › In Summary: we need to minimize animal fats in our diets. Long term effects include atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), increases high blood pressure/ hypertension and blood clots that cause heart attacks/erectile dysfunction. › A study asking the subjects to rate low fat vs full fat products showed that we conceive fatty foods to taste better because both foods were of the same fat content. › Saturated Fat and Cholesterol › Cholesterol is necessary for life, but in moderation. Too much can build up deposits in blood vessels ­ This is because they aren’t easily metabolized, this leads to strokes and heart attacks. Plant oils are great substitutions for saturated fats and are able to be metabolized › Wealthier cultures have a tendency to consume more high- cholesterol and saturated fatty foods (many times from those commonly sold in restaurants) › “movie popcorn scandal”- many theaters switched to unsaturated oils or air-popping popcorn when they learned about the high levels of fat in popcorn popped using saturated coconut oil (this is an example of assertion) › Hydrogenated Fats › Are a new artificial oil that has been chemically manufactured into a solid (margarine, vegetable shortening, processed peanut butter) › Otherwise known as a trans fat › Raises the body’s cholesterol twice as much as saturated animal fats › Unsaturated Fats › The “good fats”- they do not have the same blood blocking properties as saturated animal fats ­ Ex: olive, canola, sunflower, peanut, and sesame oils › Omega-3 Fatty Acid › Found in: deep-sea fish (halibut, herring, salmon and sardines), canola oil, and some plant foods (walnuts, flax, pumpkin, and soybean seeds) and their oils › Recommended to prevent many physical problems and increase cognitive functioning b. Salt- NaCl › Table Salt › Saltiness is an acquired taste › Humans need 500mg of salt a day—the recommended amt. is about 5X that much. › Problems associated with excess salt: ­ High blood pressure/ hypertension is aggravated ­ Can lead to irritation of the stomach lining › Replacing cells in the stomach lining too frequently increases the risk of abnormal growths (ex: stomach cancer) › Salt makes you retain water causing uncomfortable premenstrual swelling and bloating ­ Pure NaCl in table salt lacks the much need iodine in sea salt/ artificially iodized salts › Iodized Salt › Iodine is important in preventing goiter and mental retardation in infants › Need to be careful that we are getting enough iodine in our diets because of the dependence on food manufacturers and restaurants —they are not required to use iodized salts. › Although salt is dangerous in excess, it is needed to get iodine in our diets to give our thyroid the iodine it needs. c. Sugars › Glucose › The simplest sugar/ the only sugar that can be used directly › An important fuel source in almost everything we eat › High Fructose Corn syrup › A simple artificially developed carb/ sugar › It is obtained cheaply and is much sweeter than natural sugar › it has an unbalanced 45 glucose to 55 fructose ratio. ­ While glucose is used for body processes immediately, fructose is more difficult to metabolize. › Fructose is converted into fat until the body needs it to be converted into glucose for energy. › Pure sugars are empty calories (lack all nutritional value—vitamins, minerals and fiber) › Low- Carb diets are made to prevent fat buildup from fructose and unneeded glucose 2. How Eating Must Improve a. FDA “MyPlate” food proportions › Details the foods needed and the average portions of those foods › It emphasizes vegetablescarbohydratesfruits b. Mediterranean diet › A diet that emphasizes plant foods (legumes, unrefined grains, seeds, and nuts). Canola and olive oils are the main fats and dairy products are consumed very moderately. They consume fish instead of meat and meat products. 1-2 servings of wine is approved for evening meals because of the antioxidant it contains (resveratrol) c. Support for changing eating habits › Many other cultures have demonstrated that limited or nonmeat diets are beneficial to humans. › Studies have shown that it is can reduce total mortalities for all kinds of diseases such as: reduced risk of diabetes, Alzheimer’s/dementia, and diverticulosis d. The “red meat” problem › They produce a chemical that signal the body to respond with inflammation that can promote bacterial infections, tumor growth, arthritis, while increasing pain e. Enjoying “fun” food › If we indulge in junk foods on occasion, while maintaining a healthy diet the rest of the time, negative effects will disappear within a few days f. Fiber content › A necessary non-nutrient found in plants foods. It is an indigestible woody starch that gives a sense of fullness faster after eating and aids smooth digestion D. Vegetarianism › Vegetarian- “An individual who has chosen to minimize or eliminate animal products form their diets › Vegetarians used to be considered weak but now, they are considered enlightened. - The strongest animals on the planet are exclusively plant eaters - Historically, milk products were only harvested after their producing lives were over › Types of vegetarians - Vegans- eat only plant products, extreme vegans eat only raw plant foods › This is the most restricting type of vegetarian and are in the most danger of becoming nutrient deficient—need to be sure they are getting enough calories, minerals, and proteins - Lacto- eat dairy products as well as plant foods - Lacto-ovo- eat eggs and dairy products for additional protein in addition to plant products - Flexitarians- occasionally eat flesh and fish to ensure sufficient protein, but predominantly follow a vegetarian diet E. Body Fatness: Good and Bad 1. Body Weight vs. Body Fatness a. Essential Fat › The amount of fat needed for good health: no less than 5% for men and 8% for women › Body fat is essential for regulating body temperature and cushioning vital body parts from bruising. b. Nonessential Fat › Over fatness is having too much body fat: over 25% for males and over 30% for women › “each over-fat person produces annual medical costs $2741 higher than nonobese people” › even being moderately overweight increases the risk of shortening your lifespan by 40% (the severely overweight increase their risk of mortality by 70%) 2. Determining Desirable Body Weight a. Body-mass index › Takes into account the height, weight(mass), and age for determining healthy body weight or obesity b. Weight management by food selection › Good nutrition is vitally important for a total sense of well being c. The “food insecure" › It is a measure of how much food people want and can’t get it rather than how many hungry people there are › In the sociopolitical vantage point, availability of good food is dependent on money F. Section Summary › “focus on prescription drugs, while ignoring patients’ diets, has fueled the astounding growth of the pharmaceutical industry in the recent decades…” Videos: THE KILLER AMERICAN DIET THAT’S SWEEPING THE PLANET › Globalization of illness › Things like hypertension, obesity and diabetes are all preventable through diet, exercise and self moderation › If we prevent these problems, we can focus on developing medicines for the more complex diseases Dr. Neal Barnard- Chocolate, cheese, meat and sugar- Physically Addictive › Sugar- triggers the release of opiates which releases dopamine › Chocolate- it is more than the taste that drives us too it. It’s a drugstore wrapped up all together › Cheese-a cow’s liver has the enzymes act like opiate compounds › Meat- lowers blood pressure, lessens the chance of cancer, reverses type 2 diabetes › Breaking free: High fiber healthy diets, hold steady blood sugar, get enough exercise/sleep to curb your appetite Part 2: Healthy Drinking A. Water › Fulfills 2 necessities: i. Maintain enough water that the chemicals in the body can function properly ii. Is for flushing out waste products produced from body’s functioning and from small amts. of pollutants and poisons that we constantly ingest B. Beverages 1. Pure Fruit and Vegetable Juices › Pro: The modern invention of fruit/vegetable juice contains the least amount of allergens than those contained in the fructose of these plants › Con: High Fructose Corn Syrup is often added commercially to these drinks making them an impure sugary drink 2. Caffeine vs. Non-Caffeine- Based Beverages › Caffeine: a chemical stimulant with an average stimulating half-life of 3- 7 hours, its also a diuretic › Caffeinated beverages stimulate some indiv. enough to keep them awake at night because sleep onset is delayed or they are interrupted later at night by the urge to urinate (because it’s a diaretic) › The recommended serving size for coffee is 6-8 oz, but the smallest cup you can get from a coffee shop is 12 oz. with mugs up to 24oz! › Caffeine is a drug that belongs in the same chemical family as cocaine, this is why we experience symptoms of withdraw when reducing caffeine. › There are chemically modified coffee with reduced amounts of caffeine (Decaf) 3. Sweet-Based Drinks › Another primary source of empty calories that cause fat because of all the sugar it contains while it has no nutritional value other than being another source of water. B. Milk › It is an unnecessary source of saturated fat for humans above the age or 2 › The lactase enzyme that milk-drinking babies have decreases as they grow enough to eat solid food—making it more difficult to digest as we grow 1. Lactose Intolerance › It is a difficulty in digesting lactose with large amounts of unconverted milk products › Ranges from slight to complete digestion inability – Affects: 20% of European adults, 50% Hispanics, 75-95% of African, Native American, or Asian descendants › An intolerance can develop with age because of the decreasing amounts of lactase enzyme 2. Alternatives to Milk › Some lactose intolerant people can digest yogurt based products and hard cheeses after the enzymes have neutralized the lactose – Yogurts labeled “active yogurt bacteria” have the maximum conversion of lactose › To get adequate calcium for strong bones as nondairy substitutes, various vegetables have almost as much calcium as milk. C. Healthy v. Self-Abusive Alcohol Drinking 1. Serving Size › 12oz of beer; 4oz glass of wine; 1.25oz of 80-proof liquor 2. Alcohol Metabolism › Once drunk, alcohol metabolism in the body cannot be speeded up (even black coffee) › Small body weight, an empty stomach, drinking fast, gender, and genetics are critical variables › Fetal alcohol syndrome- alcohol can pass from the blood of a pregnant woman to the child in her womb which can inhibit the normal motor and brain developments. – Results in a child with a smaller than normal brain and depressed intellectual functioning 3. Binge Drinking › Not usually something that is done alone › Males: drinking 5 or more servings in a row within 2hrs › Females: drinking 4 or more servings in a row within 2hrs 4. Intoxication › Binge drinking regularly can cause serious damage to nearly every organ and function in the body › Excess drinking decreases cognitive reasoning to the point where a person is no longer aware that they are impaired 5. Beneficial Effects › Has benefits for the middle aged and elderly: – Relaxation: lowers blood pressure and can make people feel sleepy because of the simple sugars – Decreases heart-attack risks because it makes blood less sticky— decreasing clot formation › More than 2 drinks a day can cause cerebral strokes, cancers, and death by all causes including accidents.


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