HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 1-5, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 1-5, 2016 HIST 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
February 15, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan AGE OF IDEALOLOGY Liberalism: (classical Liberalism – late 18 and 19 centuries) political ideology of the middle class Classical Economics – an ideal under Liberalism Adam Smith: wrote “Wealth of Nations” Physiocrats: similar ideas o Individualism believed the individual should be totally free, the government could not intervene or have a say o LaissezFaire – a “hands off” approach to the economy, let the economy run itself, no economic regulation, should operate in a mechanical kind of way (ran according to Natural Law) o Natural Law – the idea of supply and demand, the economy was like a clock o Freedom of contract – people should be free to negotiate contracts with employers as they please (and vice versa), they can workout pay, hours, etc., this meant there was no government or labor union involvement (workers and employers could workout these things on their own) o Free competition – unlimited competition was a good thing for an economy, competition (theoretically) would keep prices down, it increased the quality of goods, only the top/most effective companies will survive This is a good thing because it encourages specialization, which means companies could focus on what they produce best Classical Liberal theorists – spread the ideas of Liberalism o Thomas Malthus: wrote “Essay on Population,” looked at population trends in Europe over the years to explain different things, he was an economist, addressed the problem of poverty and how it affected society, argued that poor relief was worse for those in poverty (believed it prolonged their misery and caused people to get married earlier, which meant population would grow when there simply was not enough money) o David Ricardo: wrote “Iron Law of Wages,” economist, influenced by Smith and Malthus, he said if you “don’t meddle in your economy then wages will automatically find a level that is sufficient to allow the working class to subsist and perpetuate” (government needs to stay out of it) Jeremy Bentham: says there are times when the government should intervene o Utilitarianism – if you don’t occasionally get involved in the economy, it will be a disaster, there are times when it is necessary for the government to do something Monopolies – when one company controls a certain market February 15, 2016 Cartels – when there are a number of monopolies on a product/market (work together to set prices) o Bentham said Utilitarianism is the idea that the government should act if it means the “greatest happiness for the greatest number of people” JS Mill: performed a Case Study, wrote an essay “On Liberty,” that talked about the freedom of the individual, said that majority rule is not a perfect system (up to 40% of the population was not heard), “the tyranny of the majority,” the government should confine itself to: law and order/self defense o Free capitalism was producing cartels and monopolies. In the late 19 and 20 centuries, people are going to the government and asking it to do more (Liberalism shifted away from LaissezFaire to a more government regulated economy), people looked more toward the idea of Socialism Socialism: sought to redress the conditions of the working class (political ideology among the working class), sensitive to the Conservative’s “boombust” o Utopian Socialism – a group of intellectuals who propose a perfect/ideal world None of these people thought reforms of the existing system would be enough, they wanted an entire reworking of the system, prevalent in France Saint Simon – envisions a complete reordering of society, wanted government to own the infrastructure of society and the top group in society to be the intellectuals (those who were concerned with the ideals of the society) and under them would be the “captains of industry” and beneath them would be the workers [people should be concerned with the welfare of workers], the top people would take care of the bottom Charles Fourier – wanted a series of autonomous communities called Phalanx (each was a separate community, no government above them), they were like “cells,” people would be provided with all their needs, each Phalanx would specialize in something and everyone would work, every Phalanx would have housing/school/medical care/food/clothing/etc., he envisioned thousands o Guiding principle of Phalanx: “From each according to his ability to each according to his need.” Robert Owen – industrialist/factory owner in Scotland, inspired by the idea of the Phalanx, he proves that humane working conditions and hours are possible February 15, 2016 Karl Marx: inspired by Utopian Socialists, but followed his own ideas; his philosophy was called Dialectical Materialism (or Scientific Socialism – based on scientific theories) o He was born into a middle class German family, very welleducated, went to work for a newspaper in the Rhineland (leftist ideas), he began writing about his ideas, people didn’t like it so he moved to France and met: Friederich Engels – son of an industrialist, collaborated with Marx, he gave him first hand knowledge of the industry, he and Marx go to Brussels in 1847 (revolutions of 1848), link up with some radicals who want them to write and publish something: Communist Manifesto – written by Marx and Engels, it is short and moving, tries to call the workers of the world together to rise up o After this they moved to London, Marx wrote another book: Das Kapital (in it he lays it all out, all his ideas, etc.) o He used scientific theory to his advantage, there was an earlier German philosopher: Hegel – he produced a theory called the Dialectic (when two opposites clash and something comes out of it) Thesis – the way things are, the dominant culture Antithesis – as time goes on things begin to change, a “counterculture” is created as things continue to mature Thesis and Antithesis clash Synthesis – something new results from the clash, and this evolves into the Thesis (and this repeats and repeats) The Dialectic is about moving forward by clashes. o Marx read Hegel’s theory and developed his own based off of it. Substructure and Superstructure – substructure is the economy, the basis of everything in society, and the superstructure is everything else (the nature of everything else is determined by the substructure) The great clash (Dialectic) happens in the substructure over the economy o This is why we call Marx a “materialist.” o Marx sees the rise of the Proletariat as inevitable, he sees Capitalism as theft: Labor theory of Value – what makes the value of a product is the labor that went into making that product, yet the laborer is paid a wage and, disproportionally, the owner (industrialist) makes all the money [says the entrepreneur is stealing from the worker] Capitalism is theft – this will lead to working class revolution February 15, 2016 There are so many people that were forced into the proletariat, they were alienated and lost everything they had (this will also lead to uprisings) o Marx believes there will be clash between the Middle class (Bourgeois) and the Working class: Dictatorship of the Proletariat – in which a perfect world is created, everyone is reprogrammed within a classless society, believes there will be no rich or poor (this would be temporary to indoctrinate the people) Keynote Speaker – Industrialization III: Technology and Progress (ON TEST) The move to factory production allowed nations to produce a lot of stuff, but it made society as a whole angry because of the poor working and living conditions. th The middle class becomes a force to be reckoned with during the 19 century. WorldShaping Technology: o Annihilators of Time and Space – steam travel, telegraphy, telephones These technologies allowed people to feel they could move around and travel, new communication allowed people to do business from further distances. Change calls people to rethink space/distance/their future. o A World of Comfort and Convenience – new domestic appliances, phonographs, cameras o “What may not be expected in a country of eternal light?” Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein George Carlin: “Electricity is really just organized lightning.” th World Fairs – held in cities throughout the world throughout the 19 century to showcase new technological advances, to reinforce notions of empire, and to stimulate economic activity o Attracted people of all sorts (who could pay the admission) Notable fairs – London (1851), Philadelphia (1876), Chicago (1893) o The Crystal Palace/The Great Exhibition of 1851 (London) – if industrialization was a race, Britain was winning, the Crystal Palace was made of “exotic” industrial materials, they filled the palace with treasures/spoils of the modern age, they also displayed the new machines that helped them get to this point o The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 (Philidelphia) – the steam engine was on display [called the mechanical beating heart of the U.S.], the American fairs were about showing the world that they had arrived at the table of modernism, they were fueling the idea of progress February 15, 2016 American fairs – some people were wary about the industrialization (i.e. the Native Americans) o The Columbian Exposition of 1839 (Chicago) – the world looked different after people saw what electricity could do to the world, the transformative view of electricity was on display Thomas Edison – he invented the pieces of equipment people needed to generate electricity, he and his company lost bidding to George Westinghouse to light the city for this fair (their ideas competed with each other) Nikola Tesla – he also worked with electricity, long distance electricity travel The managers of technological advancement took the liberty to tell people how their products would benefit them and how other company’s would not Robert Fulton and Samuel Morse – pioneers of continued industrialization (faces were on American currency for a time) People enjoyed depicting the year 2000 as this utopian world with crazy technologies. Krupp Gun Exhibit (1876) – may have caused people to doubt that the future would be full of peaceful times The creation of a monster (Frankenstein) also instilled fear in people about the future.
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