Developmental Psychology Notes Week 3
Developmental Psychology Notes Week 3 PSYC 3120
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chapter 5- Infant Cognitive Development 2/2/16 Piaget • Cognitive Perspective • Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980) • Action = Knowledge • Discontinuous- believed there were very specific periods of development o Everyone goes through these stages- everyone goes through all stages • Adaptation: how children adjust to the world o Assimilation: taking in, digesting § Example: child thinks that every animal with four legs is a horse o Accommodation: changes § Example: the child realizes that not every 4-legged animal is a horse o Equilibrium: child isn’t changing much and they are assimilating more than accommodating o Disequilibrium: cognitive discomfort; the child realizes there’s something they don’t understand and it causes them to seek out more information and change the way they’re thinking; they have to change their scheme (their way of thinking about the world) • Sensorimotor Period (Six Substages) o Substage 1 (first month of life) § Simple reflexes § Sucking o Substage 2 (1-4 months) § Primary- really only worried about their own bodies § Circular reaction- if they do something that they enjoy, they’ll keep doing it § Vary actions/anticipate events • A baby might open their mouth differently for a bottle than being breastfed § Around 3 months of age, they’ll stop crying because they realize the parent is coming in to take care of them o Substage 3 (4-8) months § Secondary- infant is interested in the environment § Environment Focus • Trying to grasp at objects or just tracking things in the environment • Start to imitate sounds they hear people making o Substage 4 (8-12 months) § Coordination- combine different actions together § Goal directed behavior • If you show a baby an attractive toy and then hide it, they’d try to push the blanket or whatever out of the way to get to that toy § Object permanence: an object still exists even if they can’t see it o Substage 5 (12-18 months) § Tertiary- repeat things with variation § Mini-experiments • Trying to figure out how things happen/behave in the natural world • Examples: splash water in the tub, using a stick to get something they can’t reach, throw their toy down the stairs and look to see what happens o Substage 6 (18 months – 2 years) § Thinking out actions before they do them § Mental representations- they understand that there are some things that represent objects or events § Problem solve symbolically § Deferred imitation: if a child sees something and it’s novel to them, they will do it later • If a child sees another infant throw a temper tantrum, that infant might go home later that day and throw a similar temper tantrum to get what they want § Functional play: first type of play that happens; uses blocks to make a tower for example § Make-believe play: for example, making a “train” out of blocks and saying “choo-choo” while pushing the block train • Support for Piaget o Anticipate events o Search for hidden objects o Make-believe play • Challenges for Piaget o Underestimated abilities (basing everything off only what he could see with his own eyes, so he couldn’t use computers or technology to see other things) § Object permanence § Deferred imitation § Motor behavior not important for development o Development more continues Language Development Theories • B.F. Skinner • Imitation/Reinforcement • Shaping • Challenges to Learning Theory o Children will say things that they never actually learned to say o Imitation might support some early language development • Nativist Theory o Noam Chomsky: we are pre-wired to learn language § Language Acquisition Device (LAD): biologically based system that contains the “rules” for all languages § Individual has to have interaction with humans o Children meet their milestone for language development at the same age no matter where they grow up (no matter the culture or language) o Criticisms § Not one single “grammar” system for all languages § Takes a lifetime to learn grammar- if we’re pre-wired, why does it take so long? § If it’s supposed to be a “human” thing, how can primates learn basic languages • Interactionist Perspective o Emphasizes innate abilities and environmental influences • Milestones of Language Development o Prelinguistic Communication: pointing at something and making noises o Cooing: starts around 2 months of age (making vowel sounds) o Babbling: starts around 6 months of age (making vowel and consonant sounds) • Joint Attention: both parent and child are looking at something and talking about it (like playing with a toy phone—“who’s on the phone?” “Can you say hello?”) • Turn-taking games: peek-a-boo, everyone has a turn to talk • Preverbal gestures: pointing to something they want Chapter 6- Infancy: Social and Personality Development 2/4/16 Lorenz • Goslings- when they hatch, they imprint on the first moving object they see o Lorenz was a researcher who realized if he was the first thing they saw, the goslings would attach to him • Imprinting • Example of animal attachment Harry Harlow • Contact comfort vs. food o Rhesus monkeys o Surrogate mothers § Wire- “mother” made of wire but that provided food § Cloth- “mother” made of cloth but provided no food o The monkeys spent much more time with the cloth mother and only went to the wire mother when driven by extreme hunger. They’d eat and then immediately go back to the cloth mother Human Attachment • Bowlby o What happens to children when they are separated from their parents during childhood • Attachment = safety and security • Special relationship with the person who provides for the infant • Important for independence • 3 stages of separation- thought maternal separation was harmful for the infant o Protest: infant would cry and be very angry that the caregiver has left o Despair: infant looks depressed (quiet and to themselves) o Detachment: a way to preserve themselves • Behaviors important to care taking o Signaling: any kind of vocal behavior trying to get the caregiver’s attention o Orienting: looking towards the caregiver to get their attention o Contact behaviors: actually grasping at the caregiver • Bonding vs. Attachment o Bonding § One-sided (parent’s tie to the child) § First hours of life o Attachment § Two-sided (child forming the bond with the parent as well as the parent with the child) § Evolves over years § Occurs during second six months of life § Built upon experiences over many months § Attachment difficulties (for some reason, the child cannot form an attachment to someone… sometimes happens with children who are adopted from another country) • Ainsworth Strange Situation (she was really interested in seeing what happens in steps 5 and 8 that are italicized) o Mother and baby enter an unfamiliar room o Baby explores the room o Stranger enters room and interacts with the mother and child o Mother leaves baby with strange o Mother returns and stranger leaves o Mother leaves baby alone o Stranger returns o Mother returns and stranger leaves • Reactions to Strange Situation (1 year olds) o Securely attached § Infant becomes very distressed when mother leaves the room o Insecurely attached- ambivalent (about 10% of children are classified this way) § Mother is inconsistent in their response to the child § Child is afraid to explore a strange room § Get very anxious when the mother leaves the room § When the mother returns, they cry and want to be held but when the mother actually picks them up, they push the mother away o Insecurely attached- avoidant (about 20% of children are classified this way) § Infant has no distress when the mother leaves § Infant has no interest when the mother returns o Disorganized-disoriented children § Very inconsistent behavior § Least securely attached of all o Adult Romantic Relationships o Reaction to stress § Stress will change how the child looks during the task § If the stranger acted very strange, the child would be even more upset o Children with avoidant and ambivalent attachment can do well Temperament • Individual differences • Stable from infancy to adolescence • Several Dimensions of Temperament o Easy child (40%) § Regular eating, sleeping § Adjusts easily § Positive quality of mood § Mild to moderate intensity of mood o Difficult Child (10%) § Irregular rhythmicity § High activity level § Adjusts slowly, temper tantrums § Negative quality of mood § High intensity of mood o Slow-to-warm-up Child (15%) § Low activity level § Gradually adjusts with repeated exposure § Low intensity of mood o The other 35% of children are not categorized as these three (unspecified or a different type of temperament) • Temperament is not good or bad • Goodness of Fit with the environment o Parent reactions § If a parent is easily adjustable and can adjust for the temperament their child has, the child will have good developmental outcomes o Cultural influences § Some cultures can affect a child’s temperament § If a child is more on the difficult side of a very passive/calm culture, that’s going to stick out more • Temperament tends to be the core of personality (e.g., if you’re very type A, you might have been a more difficult baby) Anxiety in Children • Stranger Anxiety: when the child starts to become upset when there is a stranger and the mother is not there o Appears during the second half of the first year o Example: the infant would not be happy for a babysitter taking care of them o Infants show less anxiety around female strangers • Separation Anxiety: infants simply don’t like to be separated from their parents o For some children, this never really goes away § Example: when the child is 5 or 6, they throw temper tantrums when they are sent to school o Social Smile o Social Referencing