Biol 3080 Week 4- Friday 2/5 notes
Biol 3080 Week 4- Friday 2/5 notes BIOL 3040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 4: Friday 2/5 Chapter 17: Seedless Vascular Plants III 1. Monilophyta: Ferns a. 3 variations of stele architecture b. Eustele Cross Seciton: i. Eustele: a stele in which the vascular tissues are arranged in discrete strands around the pith; typical of gymnosperms and angiosperms c. Eusporangium: arises with several initial cells and before maturation, forms a wall with more than one layer of cells i. Parent cells= initial cells located at the surface of the tissue from which the sporangium is produced ii. These initial cells divide by the formation of walls parallel to the surface, producing an inner and outer series of cells 1. Tapetum: the innermost wall layer provides nourishment to the developing spores d. Leptosporangium: arises from a single initial cell and whose wall is composed of a single layer of cells i. Sorus: and area that clusters in the sporangium ii. Sporangium/sporangia: where the spores are made iii. Indusium: protective covering- of the sori iv. Tapetum: two layers of cells that nourish the fertile tissue v. Lip cells: where the rupturing occurs-- fragile vi. Annulus: a row of specialized cells in the outer layer of a fern sporangium its shrinkage causes the sporangium to rupture, releasing the spores vii. Sporocyte: fertile tissue consists of sporocyte cells viii. Tetrad: group of four spores formed from a spore mother cell by meiosis ix. Sporopollenin: protective coat x. Spore: reproductive cell, usually unicellular; capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell 2. Monilophyte: Ferns cont. a. Class Psilotopsida (Eusporangiate Ferns) i. Two orders: 1. Ophioglossales a. Genus Botrychium= grape ferns – two rows of sporangia on the outermost segments b. Genus Ophioglossum (adder’s tongue)— fertile portion is undivided and bears two rows of sunken sporangia c. *consists of 2 parts a vegetative portion (or blade) and a fertile segment 2. Psilotales (**all bisexual) a. Genus Psilotum= whisk fern Mainly tropical and subtropic; VERY simple structure a derived conditions i. No true leaves: dichotomously branching stems and smalle scale- like “foliage”—a system of of rhizomes and many rhizoids b. Genus Tmesipteris also simple structure with tiny leaves and absense of roots 3. Marattiopsida (Eusporangiate Ferns) a. Eusporangiate largest known fronts of any fern i. Circinate: ring-shaped ii. Vernation: arrangement of young leaves b. Class Polypodiopsida (mainly Leptosporangiate) i. Most ferns (>10,000) belong to this class ii. Almost all homosporous iii. Exception is the heterosporous water ferns: 2 families 1. Marsileaceae: leaves resemble those of a four leaf clover 2. Salviniaceae: a. Genus Salvinia: float on surface of water; borne in whorls of three on the floating rhizome; one of the three leaves hands down below the surface of the water b. Genus Azolla: bilobed leaves that are born on slender stems i. The cyanobacteria live symbiotically in cavities between cells and fix N iv. Siphonostele rhizome that produces new batch of leaves each year ** (unique characteristic) v. Terms 1. vi. Large megaphylls (aka fronds) vii. Leptosporangia on margins or lower surface of leaves viii. Sori (sorus): cluster of leptosporangia; ix. Indusium: specialized leaf outgrowth that covers the young sori; umbrell-like shape; usually present; often shrivels when sporangia are mature x. ** Photosynthetic gametophyte (aka prothallus) 1. gametophyte typically develops rapidly into a flat, heart-shaped, usually membranous structure, the prothallus c. Class Equisetopsida (Horsetails) i. Single Genus: Equisetum ii. Moist habitats iii. Conspicuously jointed stems iv. Whorls of small scale-like leaves v. *Sporangia borne on sporangiophores 1. Sporangiophores: small, umbrella-like structures which are clustered into strobili (cones) at the apex of the stem.
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