PSYC 160, Week 4 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 4 Notes PSYC 160
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chapter Five Continued Section 5.1 Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development 02/01/16 1. Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7 to 12) a. Children start to understand and apply logic, but need to have a concrete example b. Children can understand family relationships i. Example: sisters, aunts, and nieces 2. Formal Operational Stage (Ages 12 to 15) a. Adolescents can now think abstractly b. They think about possibilities, morals, ethics, politics c. Can conclude best way to solve problems 3. Piaget in the Classroom… a. Children learn best teaching themselves, so let the child determine their pace b. Parents need to recognize individuality c. Do not push or pressure them d. Teach at a level so they don’t get bored, but not too hard that they give up Section 5.2 1. Criticism a. Piaget’s work wasn’t specific enough when it comes to infants and how they learn. Some suggest infants are smarter than Piaget concluded. b. He focused too much on infants sensory and motor skills c. Too strict when it comes to stage progression d. Criticized his idea of object permanence; research proves it happens sooner than 8-12 months e. Research also shows that abstract thinking doesn’t occur in everyone i. 40-60% of adults don’t think abstract f. He focused more on males in Western culture Not in Textbook 1. David Elkind (1931 - ) a. Thinks adolescents can’t think as logically as Piaget suggested b. Thought pattern is flawed by something called adolescent ego centrism, which leads to 2 types pf thinking i. Imaginary audience – idea that everyone is watching you (main star), so you engage in attention getting behavior ii. Personal fable – making up stories that you are unique and invincible; thinking that bad things happens to other people c. Adolescents are very egocentric Section 5.3 1. Lev Vygotsky ( 1896-1934) a. His work is often used education b. Suggested that our culture is responsible for how we develop; our development is not biological c. Our development is inseparable from our social and cultural activities d. Development is a reciprocal transaction between people in child's environment and the child e. Social constructivist – we make meaning from social interactions and cultures (Piaget is just a constructivist) f. Like Piaget, Vygotsky thought kids actively construct knowledge and understanding. g. Believed peers were the best teachers h. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) – tasks too difficult to master alone; cognitive distance between performing and completing a task; all of us are surrounded by this zone; lifelong i. Ex. kid trying to put together a puzzle becomes frustrated, you should… 1. Tell them to find the straight edges 2. Then organize by color 3. Most importantly, do not do it for them ii. How a child moves along this zone depends on social and cultural context i. Language – how we use speech to problem solve i. Private speech – talking to yourself 1. It’s a good thing! Gets thoughts in order to problem solve 2. Children who engage in private thought are better off socially, more attentive, and able to complete difficult tasks 3. Research has replicated and validated Vygotsky’s view of private speech 2. Vygotsky in the Classroom… a. Teachers should assess and use ZPD to move kids along b. If the hesitate, encourage them! c. Group kids with an advanced peer. This is known as cooperative learning d. Place instruction in meaningful context e. Let them experiment and apply real world problem solving 3. Criticism a. His theory was limited, but this is mostly due to the fact that he died at age 37 Both Vygotsky and Piaget fall under Social Cognitive Development Chapter Six Section 6.1 The Basics of Information Processing 1. Theory: Information Processing Approach (IPA) a. What accounts for the changes in learning and thinking over our lifespan? b. Interested in meaning and attention (stimulus and response) c. How does the mind store and retrieve? d. As we age, we improve how we learn and understand e. Focuses on memory and attention 2. Memory – computer analogy a. 3 steps i. Encode (keyboard) – put it into our memory ii. Storage (hard drive) – store it away iii. Retrieval (computer screen) – taking it out of storage as it’s needed b. Types of memory i. Short term or working memory 1. Retains info for 15 to 25 seconds (ex. phone numbers) 2. Shows no weakness even in middle adulthood ii. Long term memory 1. Unlimited 2. Older adults can’t store memories as efficiently, which accounts for “memory loss” 3. 2 kinds of long term memory a. Implicit – using memory without thinking about it (ex. don’t touch a hot stove; driving a car home) b. Explicit – conscious memory of facts and experiences (ex. names; how to drive to someone’s house) i. Episodic – retain info on when and where (ex. 9/11); females and younger adults are better at it ii. Semantic – knowledge we have about the world or general everyday knowledge. Little decline in older adults, they usually struggle with tasks involving speed and unfamiliarity Section 6.2 02/04/16 3. Problem Solving Skills a. The ability to solve practical problems peaks in middle adulthood b. Late adulthood sees a decline in problem solving skills, unless adult is highly educated or dealing with an interpersonal matter c. Engaging in intellectual activities can fight off cognitive decline (ex. crossword puzzles) d. Can we retrain our cognitive abilities? i. Answer: yes e. A study found that 40% of older adults were able to retrain their memory and the effects lasted up to 7 years 4. Duration of Memories a. How long do memories last? i. Memories seem to be permanent, but we can’t always easily or accurately recall them b. Infantile amnesia – inability to recall memories c. Autobiographical memory – memory of particular events from one’s life Section 6.3 5. Children’s Eyewitness Testimony a. Should we trust a 4 year old testifying in court? b. Probably not. Stephen Ceci claimed that children do not have these memories. They’re making it up. c. This is mostly due to kids being susceptible to adult suggestion d. The more a child is asked the same question, the more their story will change. To prevent this and improve accuracy, investigators/social workers should… i. Question the child immediately after the event ii. Use specific questions. Don’t be vague 6. IPA in the Classroom a. What method of teaching works best? i. Whole-language - learning through exposure to whole written material ii. Code-based - learning through being taught basic skills, such as translating sounds into words; this is the most effective method b. Research shows that kids that are read too have advanced literacy skills 7. Critical Thinking Skills a. Thinking that involves using cognitive skills and strategies to solve problems b. Less than 40% U.S. teens are able to successfully engage in critical thinking 8. Pros of Information Processing Approach a. Now we have a greater understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the human mind b. How IPA ends up affecting behavior c. Proves that intelligence involves many factors; we are actively engaged in our own development d. Most importantly, it can be tested 9. Criticism a. Some people believe this theory is too sterile, because it suggests no emotion or insight in the human mind. Just like a computer.
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