Biological Psychology Notes
Biological Psychology Notes PSY 1013
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Ward on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Alison Patev in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Biological Psychology February 1, 2016 Heredity and Behavior Genetic code o Adenine-thymine o Cytosine-guanine o We have 23 chromosomes: We get half from each parent o Sequences of amino acids o Genes come in pairs: They can be either homozygous (identical) or heterozygous (not identical). There can be homozygous recessive or homozygous dominant. o Genotype- each person’s unique genetic makeup o Phenotype- the physical expression of your genetic makeup Behavioral Genetics o The study of how genes influence our behavior o A lot of behavioral genetic studies study twins, especially identical twins. o Monozygotic-identical twins- come from one egg and they share the same genetic makeup o Dizygotic-fraternal twins- come from two eggs and do not share the same genetic makeup Behavioral Genomics o This is the study of which genes cause certain traits and behaviors o “The Human Genome Project” is a major study of behavioral genomics. Evolutionary Psychology Adaptations and National Selection o Adaptations are any traits passed on through generations that help us survive. Example: Human Attraction o We are more attracted to women/men that have more symmetrical faces, natural scent, etc. o Physical attractiveness in women are typically what men look at while social attractiveness is typically what men look for Culture and Environment Nature versus Nurture o Nature- physical things that come from nature o Nurture- ways you were taught and raised o Ex. Alcoholism The Nervous System Neurons o Cell body- houses the main part of the cell’s genetic material o Dendrites- receive the neurotransmitters o Myelin Sheath- Helps to conduct the neuron impulse o Axon endings- contains the neurotransmitters o Chemical Synapse- neurotransmitters are transmitted across the synapse to stimulate the next neuron The Action Potential o Chemical change Neurotransmitters o Common neurotransmitters Monoamines (all helps to regulate mood): Dopamine (reward molecule: causes pleasurable sensation) , Serotonin (helps to regulate sleep and appetite), Norepinephrine( Helps regulate stress response) Others: Acetylcholine aka ACH (movement), GABA (inhibits action potentials from being sent), Glutamate (critical in learning and memory) o Reuptake and inhibitors Reuptake- Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon terminal Reuptake Inhibitors- doesn’t allow certain neurotransmitters to reuptake ex. Cocaine o Neurotransmitters and Drugs Agonists: any drug that enhances or improves the effects of neurotransmitters; two types Direct- mimics the action potential of a specific neurotransmitters Indirect- increases the amount of neurotransmitters that are released into the chemical synapse Antagonists- blocks neurotransmitters from working, bind to chemical receptors and “tricks” the neurotransmitters into thinking the reaction sight is already in use, therefore, reuptake occurs and less action potential occurs Ex. Botox Chemical Messengers o Hormones Hormones help to balance out your systems and bring homeostasis Produced by your glands Help to respond with stress o Glands Each gland has a specific hormone that it releases Major gland- pituitary gland Sex hormones are produced by ovaries and testes Nervous Systems o Broken down into the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system Central Nervous System o Made up of the brain and spinal cord o Spinal Cord attached the brain to the peripheral nervous system Peripheral Nervous System o Divided into two: autonomic and somatic nervous systems Somatic Nervous System- voluntary movement and reflexes Deals with the skeletal system Autonomic- regulates your organs Automatic Divided into two subcategories: o Sympathetic: helps with fight or flight response and helps you to deal with stress dilates your pupils and increases your heart rate o Parasympathetic: Helps to calm you down after fight or flight The Brain and Nervous System Brain Structure o Hindbrain- Home to your most vital functions, vital organs, heart and lungs Ponds- Involved with your Sleeping and Waking Medulla- Responsible for your heart rate and your breathing and other reflexive automatic reactions ex. Sneezing Cerebellum- Involved with movement and fine motor skills o Midbrain- Relays sensory information to the rest of the brain Thalamus- relays sensory input Pituitary Gland- drives hormone production Hypothalamus- involved with hormone release, helps to control your food intake, fear processing, stress processing, sleep o Forebrain- most complex part of the brain, divided into four different lobes Frontal- Higher cognitive functioning Parietal- experiences of touch, bodily awareness Occipital- visual processing Temporal- Hearing and Language, object and face recognition Left Brain vs. Right Brain Functions o Right Brain- Visual and special skills, linked to being an artist o Left Brain- language and math, logic and analytical skills Spilt- Brain Surgery o Cuts the Corpus Callosum (Nerve bundle in the middle of the Brain) to divide the brain into two parts Neuroplasticity o Individuals who have brain damage can enhance certain skills or relearn skills in different parts of the brain o The Brain adapts to new skills in different areas when need be. Brain Activity Electrophysiology o Messages Brain activity EEG- measures brain activity and nerve impulses Brain Imaging o Makes a scan of your brain PET Scan- Radioactive Glucose is tracked through your brain MRI- Magnetic Resting Imaging – aligns H atoms in your brain and then disrupts the atoms and a signal bounces back as an image FMRI- Functional MRI- allows you to see blood flow in the brain Lesioning and Brain Stimulation o Leisioning- Go and destroy parts of the brain to see a result o Brain Stimulation- TMS- pass magnetic impulses to a part of the brain and disrupt function in that area for a short time o
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