Biochem Lecture 7 Powerpoint notes
Biochem Lecture 7 Powerpoint notes 87222 - BCHM 3050 - 002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by America Seach on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 87222 - BCHM 3050 - 002 at Clemson University taught by Srikripa Chandrasekaran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Essential Elements of Biochemistry in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Biochem Lecture 7: - Nucleic Acid: Linear polymers of nucleotides that function in the storage and expression of genetic information, and its transfer from one generation to the next. - Two main types: Ribonucleic Acid (in RNA) and De-oxyribonucleic Acid (in DNA) - Molecular components of nucleotides (three components) 1. Nitrogenous base a. 1’ is always connected to the nitrogenous base 2. Pentose sugar 3. Phosphate a. 5’ is always connected to the phosphate - 2’ is always the one that distinguishes whether it is part of RNA (has an OH) or DNA (only has H) - Nitrogenous Base families: - o Pyrimidines: six-membered heterocyclic rings of C and N o Purines: fused six-membered + five-membered heterocyclic rings of C and N o Bases: N-groups can accept protons, giving “basic” properties to the molecules o Need to know AGTCU, be able to distinguish the structures - “AnGels are PURe” - thymine is only in DNA, Uracil is only in RNA—you will never find them together - thymine has a CH3 group (only one that does) - It is always a purine + pyrimidine; A+T and C+G - Free bases are poorly soluble, and rarely occur - Interesting Nitrogenous bases (know these structures; be able to see the molecule and connect it to its function): o Theobromine and Theophylline: secondary metabolites of cocoa beans and tea leaves; act as a diuretic, cardiac stimulant, and vasodilator, relaxes smooth muscles o Caffeine: stimulant, diuretic; antagonist to adenosine adenosine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that binds to the adenosine receptor; accumulates during wakefulness and helps promote sleepiness, especially following sleep deprivation - Nucleosides: nitrogenous bases attached to sugars o Glycosidic bond: between a nitrogenous base and sugar o 1’ attaches in sugar to Nitrogen o Rotation about glycosidic bond is possible - Common Ribonucleosides o Be able to recognize which are which o Purines end in “-dine” o If it is DNA, it is going to have “deoxy-“ prefix - Adenosine: o Inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain, binds to adenosine receptors o Binding causes…. Drowsiness (slows down nerve cell activity) Dilation of blood vessels (lets more oxygen bind while sleeping o Clinically used as an anti-arrhythmic to slow/calm the heartbeats o Caffeine competes with the same receptor of the brain; reverses the effects of adenosine - Cordycepin (3’-Deoxy Adenosine) - o Antibiotic produced by Cordyceps militaris (scarlet caterpillar fungus) o Inhibits the final step of RNA biosynthesis by termination of the ribonucleotide chain o We do not make this, only made by the fungus o Also inhibits RNA synthesis of humans - Cytokinins: plant hormone derived from adenine; if you’re given the structure, identify the function o Contain adenine ring system with an attached 5-carbon hydrophobic group at the free NH2 o Ribose sugar o Promotes cell division in plants Zeatin Ribose: - Nucleotides: nucleosides with one or more phosphates - Common Ribonucleotides (recognize these structures): o TMP will not be found in nature because it is not found in RNA o You will never see deoxy UMP o IMP normally becomes AMP (it’s the transitional state before AMP occurs) - Common Deoxy-Ribonucleotides: - Metabolic functions of Nucleotides (besides building blocks of nucleic acids): o ATP: phosphate acceptor/donor; energy currency; deoxyATP is not used for energy because it can’t produce energy without oxygen o GTP: protein synthesis and signal transduction o CTP: membrane and storage lipid synthesis o UTP: carbohydrate synthesis and degradation - The Central Role of ATP in Energy Metabolism: o ATP allows us to do many energy-dependent things o Energy-dependent processes: Biosynthetic processes Active transport Mechanical work (muscles) Temperature regulation Bioluminescence - Closer look at the structure of Adenylate Nucleotides (ATP): o Energy is produced when phosphate bond is broken o Know types of bonds: Phosphoanhydride bonds are easily broken and that’s what produces energy Phosphoester bonds- alcohol group in the sugar interacts with the phosphate group Ester bonds- are found in fruit and it’s a mix of an acid and an alcohol (COO) - Cyclic Nucleotides o Second messengers in signal cascades o Second messenger: a TINY short-lived intracellular chemical signal molecule that relays a message (stimulus) from an external “first messenger”; this relay typically results in a cascade of events leading to a marked amplification of the first messenger o First messengers: hormones, neurotransmitters o Second messengers: Ca2+ ions, inositol-Pi3, diacylglycerol, cyclic nucleotides - How is cAMP formed? (cAMP is a secondary messenger) KNOW THIS: - Cyclic AMP and Cyclic GMP: secondary messengers o Adenylate Cyclase: ATP cAMP +PPi cAMP is involved in many signal cascades hormone signaling, apoptosis, disease reactions, neuron function o Guanylate Cyclase: GTP cGMP +PPi cGMP is involved in nitric oxide (NO) signaling blood pressure homeostasis, nerve impulse transmission, stress responses in plants (is a relatively new signal cascade- especially in plants) signals pain
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