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Chem 222 Week 2 notes

by: Leslie Pike

Chem 222 Week 2 notes Chem 222

Leslie Pike
GPA 3.9

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These are the lecture notes for the second week of class. Colligative properties, van 't Hoff factor
College Chemistry 2
Darwin Dahl
Class Notes
Chemistry, chem 222
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Pike on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 222 at Western Kentucky University taught by Darwin Dahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chem 222 notes Week 2 Henry’s Law of Gas Solubility: Initialsolubili=yFinal solubility Initial pressure Final pressure The solubility of gas increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing temperature. The solubility of liquids and solids is not affected by pressure. As a general rule, the solubility of solids and liquids increases when temperature increases. Exceptions to this rule are some substances which release heat when they dissolve. According to Le Chatelier’s principle, adding more heat to the system would discourage the solute from dissolving. Le Chatelier’s Principle: When a system in equilibrium is shifted from its equilibrium, the system will try to offset the shift. Ex. The breakdown of dinitrogen tetraoxide to form two NO2 molecules. If the pressure is increased in the container, NO2 will combine to form dinitrogen tetraoxide, reducing the number of molecules in the container and offsetting the pressure increase. If the pressure is decreased, dinitrogen tetraoxide will break apart to form NO2, increasing the number of molecules in the container and offsetting the pressure increase. Mass percentage: Mass of solute divided by mass of solution. If you have a saline solution that is 20% by mass, in 100 grams of the solution, 20 grams will be salt and 80 grams will be water. Molality: Moles of solute divided by kilograms of solvent. The cool thing about molality is that it is not affected by temperature. Molarity (moles solute per liter solution) is affected by temperature. (This is why containers in the lab are more likely to be labeled in molals than in molars.) Mole fraction: Numbers of moles of given substance divided by total number of moles of everything. Van’t Hoff factor: Number of ions per formula unit. Ex. Calcium chloride, CaCl , h2s a van’t Hoff factor of 3, NaCl has a van’t Hoff factor of 2. Represented by a lowercase “i”. Colligative Properties: Property that depends on the concentration of the solute. The following are colligative properties: Vapor-pressure lowering: Δ P=i P X A B Freezing point depression: Δ T=iK mf Boiling point elevation: Δ T=iK m f Osmotic pressure: π=iMRT


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