Psych 3120 Week 2 Lecture Notes
Psych 3120 Week 2 Lecture Notes PSYC 3120
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 2 Lecture Notes CHAPTER 3: BIRTH & THE NEWBORN INFANT Neonate • Newborn Braxton Hicks Contraction • False labor • Towards the end of term, starting as early as 6 months • The uterus is “practicing” and prepping the body for birth • The fetus has to be face down for birth. If its not then the Braxton hicks contractions will help position it to be so Full term birth is 38-‐40 weeks Cervix has to dilate to 10 cm Uterus is pleated like an accordion to allow fetus to grow Three stages of Labor 1. Stage one a. Lasts 16-‐24 hours b. Cervix i. Has to widen to 10 cm which takes a long time c. Transition i. Strength of contractions is at their peak. Start out every 10 min & slowly increase to every 2 minutes and the fetus’ head starts crowning d. Feels like you’re pooping out a kid e. Women’s hips are always wider after birth and the cervix is wider as well allowing for an easier shorter 2 , 3 , 4 birth 2. Stage two a. 90 minutes b. The dramatic part of labor, fetus is pushed through the canal. i. The hardest part is the head c. Episotomy i. Incision to cut the space between the vagina and anus to make more room for baby to come through 3. Stage 3 a. 5-‐10 minutes b. Pushing out the placenta c. Umbilical cord is cut i. Can keep it or donate it ii. If the umbilical cord is not clamped woman would bleed out After birth neonates go through a series of examinations to make sure they’re healthy. One of them is called the APGAR SCALE 1 Week 2 Lecture Notes • A= appearance =color • P= pulse= heart rate • G = grimace= reflex irritability • A= activity= muscle tone • R= respiration= respiratory effort -‐-‐-‐-‐Scored from a 1-‐10. Healthy babies are typically in the range of 7-‐10 -‐-‐-‐-‐ Amniotic fluid -‐Surrounds baby when it’s in the womb Vernix -‐ Looks like greasy cottage cheese -‐ A lubricant for birth -‐ Protects fetus from amniotic fluid so they don’t turn pruny from sitting Lanugo • Develops in utero • Very fine hairs • 20 weeks gestation covers entire baby • 28 weeks gestation begins to thin • At 40 weeks gestation may be completely alone Head Shape • Cone-‐shaped o Fetus’ skull is flexible and the force of labor can deform the head o Can last a few weeks or “forever” § They’ll have to wear helmets (like you would braces) to reposition and correct shape Pain & Child Birth • Analgesic o Blocks out some of the pain but not all of it. o Must be taken within certain timeframe for it to be affective • Anesthetic o Epidural § Reduces pain greatly § Administered directly into spinal cord § Risks: • Temporary paralysis in woman • Can effect mothers pushing abilities and the baby comes out very sleepy Birth Options • Family birthing center o Looks like a hotel o You bring in more people to the room than you can in a hotel 2 Week 2 Lecture Notes o Delivered by a nurse midwife • Water birth o Easy transition for babies to go from a watery environment in the womb to another water environment in the outside world o Risk of sickness/infections due to unsterile water • Lamaze o Named after French physician o You take classes prior to due date § Learn relaxation and breathing techniques so that you don’t put extra stress on the baby during labor o Given a labor coach to keep you breathing and calm during the process • Cesarean o Aka C-‐section o Surgical birth § Major surgery § Risk of infection for mother § Long recovery process on mother o Used if: § The baby is in distress § The head is clearly too big § Having twins § Atopic pregnancy § Breach birth • Child is coming out feet or butt first • Dangerous because umbilical cord can wrap around the baby’s neck cutting off air flow to the brain, leading to brain damage (mental disability) or death • Complications o Breech position o Transverse position § Baby is horizontal o Cerebral Palsy § Impairment in muscle coordination due to brain damage. Can be only muscular or muscular and cognitive o Anoxia § Lack of oxygen o Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) § Brain bleed § Delays in growth § Voice issues § Processes speed delay 3 Week 2 Lecture Notes CHAPTER 4: INFANT PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Development of the Nervous System • Neuron o The basic nerve cell of the nervous system • Myelin o Fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses • Cortex o The upper layer of the brain Plasticity • The degree to which a developing structure is modifiable due to experience • Brain has a lot of this Neuroplasticity • How experiences reorganize neural pathways • Allows: o For learning to occur o Us to make memories o Us to recovery from trauma • Crucial in early brain development Infant neuroplasticity • Brains plasticity is the greatest the first few years of life • Parents create stimulating environments that encourages brain growth o Cuddling o Talking o Singing o Playing with them • Sensory experiences affect both size of neurons and the structures of their interconnections o Raised in strict environment? More likely to show differences in size/weight which is why its important to have a stimulating environment • Due to high levels at this age infants who suffer brain injuries are way less affected than adults and recover more fully Hemispherectomy • Very rare surgical procedure where one cerebral hemisphere (half of the brain) is removed or disabled. 4 Week 2 Lecture Notes • Used to treat a variety of seizure disorders where the source of the epilepsy is localized to a broad area of a single hemisphere of the brain, among other disorders. • Happens as early as 3 years old • Results o Memory and personality develop normally o Seizures stop o Academic achievements improve o Difficulties with fine motor skills § Example: zipping a jacket o fMRI shows the remaining hemisphere is taking over functions § Many areas of the brain are not yet devoted to a specific task so if one area is injured the other areas can easily take over Synaptic Pruning Ø Definition o The elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation • Use it or lose it • Babies are born with more neurons than they need o Brain development enhances certain capabilities in part by “pruning down” unnecessary neurons § Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons § Strengthens connections Sensitive Period In Brain Development • Strabismus o “Lazy eye” o Individual has difficulty seeing clearly because one eye has issues focusing o Screws with depth perception o Can be corrected with surgery o Affect visual activity • Electroencephalogram (EEG) o How we look at the brain • Brain goes through “growth spurts” o 1.5 to 2 years § Vocab o 9 to 15 years § Abstract thoughts • Like algebra or geometry o 18 to 20 years 5 Week 2 Lecture Notes § Consolidation of large bodies of knowledge • Studying a major States of Arousal • Rhythms/cycles (table 4-‐2 in textbook) • State o Sleep states § Active sleep • Similar to REM sleep • Infants spend 50% of time here § Active Quiet Transition Sleep • In and out of sleep § Quiet Sleep • Non REM sleep • No extra brain waves • No movement • 28% time here o Transition states between sleeping and waking § Drowsiness • Falling asleep, body is less active § Daze • Eyes are open but nothing is moving § Sleep wake transition • Waking up & becoming alert o Alert states § Alert § Fuss § Crying § Non alert waking Reflexes • Table 4-‐3 in textbook • Most reflexes drop out after 6 months • Definition o In born automatic responses, all having to do with a sense • No reflexes = brain issue • Rooting reflex o Something touches the babies face, they try to suck on it • Stepping reflex o Looks like the baby is attempting to walk when lifted • Palmer Grasp o Grab finger of person touching then 6 Week 2 Lecture Notes o Disappears 3-‐4 months • Tonic Neck o Infant is on their back. If you turn their neck they’ll stick an arm out Milestones of Motor Development • Table (4-‐8 & 4-‐4) in text • Gross Motor skills o Sit alone § 7 months o Crawling/creeping § 8 and 10 months o Walking alone § 11-‐14 months • Norms o Average performance of large sample of children of a given age o Only useful if the data on which they’re based come from a representative sample • Affected By o Training § Example: bouncing toy o Nutrition § Breast feel till 2 o Cultural expectations Senses • Touch o Very well developed at birth o Reflexes o Temperature § Cry when too hot or too cold o Putting things in their mouth o Pain § High pitched cry • Taste o Pretty sophisticated o Facial expressions § When something is sour à scrunch nose, twisted face § When something is good/sweet à smile • Smell o Facial expressions § Same as adults o Can recognize mother’s scent within days 7 Week 2 Lecture Notes § Bottle fed have harder time doing with than breast fed due to the lack of comfort contact o Can tell the difference between scents • Hearing o Babies like sounds relatable to the human voice o Sound localization § Find out where noises are coming from o Sound distinction § Can discriminate between sounds • Difference between mom and dad voices • Difference in languages o Can hear sounds adults cant § Either really high or really low • Visual Perception o Retina § A layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and that trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, § Where a visual image is formed. o Lens § Focuses the light rays that pass through it (and onto the retina) in order to create clear images of objects that are positioned at various distances o Babies like the colors blue and green o Like things that represent a human face, 3D over 2D, curved lines over straight ones o Prefer mothers face of others o Can distinguish male from female o Visual Cliff § Used to study depth perception § 6 to 14 month olds would not cross to the “deep side” 8
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