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Psych 3120 Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Kennedy Finister

Psych 3120 Week 2 Lecture Notes PSYC 3120

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > PSYC 3120 > Psych 3120 Week 2 Lecture Notes
Kennedy Finister
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About this Document

Auburn university Developmental psych professor: Elizabeth Knight Material: Chapter 3: Birth and Newborn development Chapter 4:infant physical development
Developmental Psychology
Elizabeth Brestan Knight
Class Notes
developmental psychology, psych, Life Span Development, Auburn University, psyc 3120
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week  2   Lecture  Notes       CHAPTER  3:  BIRTH  &  THE  NEWBORN  INFANT     Neonate   • Newborn   Braxton  Hicks  Contraction   • False  labor   • Towards  the  end  of  term,  starting  as  early  as  6  months   • The  uterus  is  “practicing”  and  prepping  the  body  for  birth   • The  fetus  has  to  be  face  down  for  birth.  If  its  not  then  the  Braxton  hicks   contractions  will  help  position  it  to  be  so       Full  term  birth  is  38-­‐40  weeks   Cervix  has  to  dilate  to  10  cm   Uterus  is  pleated  like  an  accordion  to  allow  fetus  to  grow     Three  stages  of  Labor   1. Stage  one   a. Lasts  16-­‐24  hours   b. Cervix   i.  Has  to  widen  to  10  cm  which  takes  a  long  time   c. Transition   i. Strength  of  contractions  is  at  their  peak.  Start  out  every   10  min  &  slowly  increase  to  every  2  minutes  and  the   fetus’  head  starts  crowning   d. Feels  like  you’re  pooping  out  a  kid   e. Women’s  hips  are  always  wider  after  birth  and  the  cervix  is   wider  as  well  allowing  for  an  easier  shorter  2 ,  3 ,  4  birth   2. Stage  two   a. 90  minutes   b. The  dramatic  part  of  labor,  fetus  is  pushed  through  the  canal.   i. The  hardest  part  is  the  head   c. Episotomy   i. Incision  to  cut  the  space  between  the  vagina  and  anus  to   make  more  room  for  baby  to  come  through   3. Stage  3   a. 5-­‐10  minutes   b. Pushing  out  the  placenta   c. Umbilical  cord  is  cut   i. Can  keep  it  or  donate  it   ii. If  the  umbilical  cord  is  not  clamped  woman  would  bleed   out       After  birth  neonates  go  through  a  series  of  examinations  to  make  sure  they’re   healthy.  One  of  them  is  called  the  APGAR  SCALE     1   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       • A=  appearance  =color   • P=  pulse=  heart  rate   • G  =  grimace=  reflex  irritability     • A=  activity=  muscle  tone   • R=  respiration=  respiratory  effort     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Scored  from  a  1-­‐10.  Healthy  babies  are  typically  in  the  range  of  7-­‐10  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Amniotic  fluid       -­‐Surrounds  baby  when  it’s  in  the  womb   Vernix   -­‐ Looks  like  greasy  cottage  cheese   -­‐ A  lubricant  for  birth   -­‐ Protects  fetus  from  amniotic  fluid  so  they  don’t  turn  pruny  from  sitting     Lanugo   • Develops  in  utero   • Very  fine  hairs   • 20  weeks  gestation  covers  entire  baby   • 28  weeks  gestation  begins  to  thin   • At  40  weeks  gestation  may  be  completely  alone       Head  Shape   • Cone-­‐shaped   o Fetus’  skull  is  flexible  and  the  force  of  labor  can  deform  the  head   o Can  last  a  few  weeks  or  “forever”   § They’ll  have  to  wear  helmets  (like  you  would  braces)  to   reposition  and  correct  shape     Pain  &  Child  Birth   • Analgesic   o Blocks  out  some  of  the  pain  but  not  all  of  it.     o Must  be  taken  within  certain  timeframe  for  it  to  be  affective   • Anesthetic   o Epidural   § Reduces  pain  greatly   § Administered  directly  into  spinal  cord   § Risks:     • Temporary  paralysis  in  woman   • Can  effect  mothers  pushing  abilities  and  the  baby  comes   out  very  sleepy     Birth  Options   • Family  birthing  center   o Looks  like  a  hotel     o You  bring  in  more  people  to  the  room  than  you  can  in  a  hotel     2   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       o Delivered  by  a  nurse  midwife   • Water  birth   o Easy  transition  for  babies  to  go  from  a  watery  environment  in  the   womb  to  another  water  environment  in  the  outside  world   o Risk  of  sickness/infections  due  to  unsterile  water   • Lamaze   o Named  after  French  physician   o You  take  classes  prior  to  due  date   § Learn  relaxation  and  breathing  techniques  so  that  you  don’t   put  extra  stress  on  the  baby  during  labor   o Given  a  labor  coach  to  keep  you  breathing  and  calm  during  the   process   • Cesarean   o Aka  C-­‐section   o Surgical  birth   § Major  surgery     § Risk  of  infection  for  mother   § Long  recovery  process  on  mother   o Used  if:   § The  baby  is  in  distress   § The  head  is  clearly  too  big     § Having  twins   § Atopic  pregnancy   § Breach  birth   • Child  is  coming  out  feet  or  butt  first     • Dangerous  because  umbilical  cord  can  wrap  around  the   baby’s  neck  cutting  off  air  flow  to  the  brain,  leading  to   brain  damage  (mental  disability)  or  death   • Complications   o Breech  position   o Transverse  position   § Baby  is  horizontal   o Cerebral  Palsy   § Impairment  in  muscle  coordination  due  to  brain  damage.  Can   be  only  muscular  or  muscular  and  cognitive   o Anoxia   § Lack  of  oxygen   o Intraventricular  Hemorrhage  (IVH)   § Brain  bleed   § Delays  in  growth   § Voice  issues   § Processes  speed  delay           3   Week  2   Lecture  Notes         CHAPTER  4:  INFANT  PHYSICAL  DEVELOPMENT       Development  of  the  Nervous  System   • Neuron   o The  basic  nerve  cell  of  the  nervous  system   • Myelin   o Fatty  substance  that  helps  insulate  neurons  and  speeds  the   transmission  of  nerve  impulses   • Cortex   o The  upper  layer  of  the  brain       Plasticity   • The  degree  to  which  a  developing  structure  is  modifiable  due  to  experience   • Brain  has  a  lot  of  this     Neuroplasticity   • How  experiences  reorganize  neural  pathways   • Allows:   o For  learning  to  occur   o Us  to  make  memories   o Us  to  recovery  from  trauma     • Crucial  in  early  brain  development       Infant  neuroplasticity   • Brains  plasticity  is  the  greatest  the  first  few  years  of  life   • Parents  create  stimulating  environments  that  encourages  brain  growth   o Cuddling   o Talking   o Singing   o Playing  with  them   • Sensory  experiences  affect  both  size  of  neurons  and  the  structures  of  their   interconnections   o Raised  in  strict  environment?  More  likely  to  show  differences  in   size/weight  which  is  why  its  important  to  have  a  stimulating   environment     • Due  to  high  levels  at  this  age  infants  who  suffer  brain  injuries  are  way  less   affected  than  adults  and  recover  more  fully     Hemispherectomy   • Very  rare  surgical  procedure  where  one  cerebral  hemisphere  (half  of  the   brain)  is  removed  or  disabled.       4   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       • Used  to  treat  a  variety  of  seizure  disorders  where  the  source  of  the  epilepsy   is  localized  to  a  broad  area  of  a  single  hemisphere  of  the  brain,  among  other   disorders.   • Happens  as  early  as  3  years  old   • Results   o Memory  and  personality  develop  normally   o Seizures  stop   o Academic  achievements  improve   o Difficulties  with  fine  motor  skills     § Example:  zipping  a  jacket   o fMRI  shows  the  remaining  hemisphere  is  taking  over  functions   § Many  areas  of  the  brain  are  not  yet  devoted  to  a  specific  task   so  if  one  area  is  injured  the  other  areas  can  easily  take  over       Synaptic  Pruning   Ø Definition   o The  elimination  of  neurons  as  the  result  of  nonuse  or  lack  of   stimulation   • Use  it  or  lose  it   • Babies  are  born  with  more  neurons  than  they  need   o Brain  development  enhances  certain  capabilities  in  part  by  “pruning   down”  unnecessary  neurons   § Allows  established  neurons  to  build  more  elaborate   communication  networks  with  other  neurons   § Strengthens  connections         Sensitive  Period  In  Brain  Development   • Strabismus   o “Lazy  eye”   o Individual  has  difficulty  seeing  clearly  because  one  eye  has  issues   focusing   o Screws  with  depth  perception   o Can  be  corrected  with  surgery   o Affect  visual  activity   • Electroencephalogram  (EEG)   o How  we  look  at  the  brain     • Brain  goes  through  “growth  spurts”   o 1.5  to  2  years     § Vocab   o 9  to  15  years   § Abstract  thoughts     • Like  algebra  or  geometry   o 18  to  20  years     5   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       § Consolidation  of  large  bodies  of  knowledge     • Studying  a  major       States  of  Arousal   • Rhythms/cycles  (table  4-­‐2  in  textbook)   • State   o Sleep  states   § Active  sleep   • Similar  to  REM  sleep   • Infants  spend  50%  of  time  here   § Active  Quiet  Transition  Sleep   • In  and  out  of  sleep     § Quiet  Sleep     • Non  REM  sleep   • No  extra  brain  waves     • No  movement   • 28%  time  here   o Transition  states  between  sleeping  and  waking   § Drowsiness   • Falling  asleep,  body  is  less  active   § Daze   • Eyes  are  open  but  nothing  is  moving     § Sleep  wake  transition   •  Waking  up  &  becoming  alert   o Alert  states   § Alert   § Fuss   § Crying   § Non  alert  waking         Reflexes     • Table  4-­‐3  in  textbook   • Most  reflexes  drop  out  after  6  months   • Definition     o In  born  automatic  responses,  all  having  to  do  with  a  sense   • No  reflexes  =  brain  issue     • Rooting  reflex   o Something  touches  the  babies  face,  they  try  to  suck  on  it   • Stepping  reflex   o Looks  like  the  baby  is  attempting  to  walk  when  lifted   • Palmer  Grasp   o Grab  finger  of  person  touching  then     6   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       o Disappears  3-­‐4  months   • Tonic  Neck   o Infant  is  on  their  back.  If  you  turn  their  neck  they’ll  stick  an  arm  out           Milestones  of  Motor  Development     • Table  (4-­‐8  &  4-­‐4)  in  text   • Gross  Motor  skills   o Sit  alone   § 7  months   o Crawling/creeping   § 8  and  10  months   o Walking  alone   § 11-­‐14  months   • Norms     o Average  performance  of  large  sample  of  children  of  a  given  age   o Only  useful  if  the  data  on  which  they’re  based  come  from  a   representative  sample   • Affected  By   o Training   § Example:  bouncing  toy   o Nutrition   § Breast  feel  till  2   o Cultural  expectations       Senses   • Touch   o Very  well  developed  at  birth   o Reflexes   o Temperature   § Cry  when  too  hot  or  too  cold   o Putting  things  in  their  mouth   o Pain   § High  pitched  cry   • Taste   o Pretty  sophisticated     o Facial  expressions   § When  something  is  sour  à  scrunch  nose,  twisted  face   § When  something  is  good/sweet  à  smile   • Smell   o Facial  expressions   § Same  as  adults     o Can  recognize  mother’s  scent  within  days     7   Week  2   Lecture  Notes       § Bottle  fed  have  harder  time  doing  with  than  breast  fed  due  to   the  lack  of  comfort  contact   o Can  tell  the  difference  between  scents   • Hearing   o Babies  like  sounds  relatable  to  the  human  voice   o Sound  localization   § Find  out  where  noises  are  coming  from   o Sound  distinction   § Can  discriminate  between  sounds   • Difference  between  mom  and  dad  voices   • Difference  in  languages   o Can  hear  sounds  adults  cant   § Either  really  high  or  really  low   • Visual  Perception   o Retina   § A layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and that trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain,   § Where a visual image is formed.   o Lens   § Focuses the light rays that pass through it (and onto the retina) in order to create clear images of objects that are positioned at various distances   o Babies  like  the  colors  blue  and  green   o Like  things  that  represent  a  human  face,  3D  over  2D,  curved  lines  over   straight  ones   o Prefer  mothers  face  of  others   o Can  distinguish  male  from  female   o Visual  Cliff   § Used  to  study  depth  perception   § 6  to  14  month  olds  would  not  cross  to  the  “deep  side”       8  


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