The World Before 1500
The World Before 1500 12590
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Swanson on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12590 at Bowling Green State University taught by Kara Barr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see The Modern World in History at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Vocab. Bureaucracy: A system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives. Nomadic: A member of a people or tribe that has no permanent abode but movesabout from place to place, usually seasonally and often following atraditional route or cir cuit according to the state of the pasturage or food supply. Diaspora: Jews living outside Israel. The World Before 1500 Between History and Prehistory What is Prehistory? Prehistory is the time before any written history was recorded. Prehistory begins with the appearance of human beings and ends with the invention of writing. The modern human being initially developed because of evolutionary responses to their surrounding environment. This is also known as Darwinism aka survival of the fittest. The most successful organisms survive and reproduce. Results (not excluded to) in the ability to walk on two legs and form complex speech. These abilities and adoptions gave humans an advantage to change and influence the change to the environment to suit their needs and desires. The Agricultural Revolution THIS WAS NOT A REVOLUTION, but it was a time of rapid advancement in the agricultural field. (literal field and metaphorical) This happened around 10,000 years ago. There was a large transition between gathering the food to growing the food. Also introduced the idea of domesticating animals. This allowed people to settle down and form civilizations and communities. The Impact of the Agricultural Revolution Having these new settlements and civilizations, there was a sudden population boost This was because of the sudden increase of food they could make and store and the fact that people were gathered together now instead of spread apart. There became a shift in the makeup of families. Families used to be just family groups that only had one family. Families now were made up of a more complex arrangement of people and families. This was mostly in the Fertile Crescent area The Fertile Crescent of the Middle East was located in Egypt, India, and China. Birth of Culture and Empires Communities developed armies, which now allowed societies to conquer other areas and gain more land. Bureaucracy was developed and necessary for the government of these areas Better and more weapons were developed to gain advantages over other areas and gain more land or defend current land. Societies developed a division of labor (specialization) This allowed people more “leisure” time, which allowed them more time to think of religion. Early Religious Traditions Communities no longer being nomadic meant that people could build things, like buildings. Communities built many religious buildings like temples, where they could worship their gods, give sacrifices or offerings, or many other things. Priests developed and preformed prayers and rituals which would “protect” their communities from things like nature or other communities. It was believed that acts of nature (bad storms, floods, natural disasters, etc) where acts of the gods. If you please the gods, you will have better weather, better crops, etc. People began to study the planets, stars, and their movements. Written Texts and “Collective” Knowledge Written language has preserved bodies and texts of knowledge of medicine, agriculture, and other things, throughout time. This was first developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Myths and legends that had been told orally where now written down. This is an improvement, as stories told orally are bound to change from telling to telling, and details get lost, forgotten, or warped. Once written down, it stays the same, excepting a few minor changes from each written version. With the invention of written language, order and other communications could now be sent long distances without the fear of the message being changed. The Rise of Empires Earlier empires created new combinations of other or previous civilizations and the culture and people. During the 4 century BC, Alexander the Great spread the Greek culture to otherstmpiresnd Between the 1 and 2 century BC, Latin speakers from the Italian Peninsula (which was not yet Italy) grew their empire’s rule, spreading language and culture in the Roman Empire. Empires and Culture The appearance of empires sparked an interest in developing cities, which now served as centers for administrative, economic, and cultural aspects for the area. Temples, palaces, monuments, markets, homes, and many other things grew more popular and larger. This required a large labor force to build. Practical Improvements Roadways were constructed for transportation, trade, and other uses. There were now thousands of miles of roads. Fortresses became popular in frontier areas for defense. Roads and other developments improved communications and travel, meaning there was more trade between civilizations, meaning that new resources were available. Trade Between Cultures Trade and exchange of valuable goods and luxury items, such as gold, ivory, feather, etc. became available in areas there previously were not People could not have more “luxurious” life styles. Along with these items traded was the exchange of ideas and beliefs. In the Roman Empire, there was the growth of Greek and Roman culture roaming around the roadways and civilizations. Monotheism and Jewish Diaspora in the 7 century. Hinduism and Buddhism came from Indian traders. What is Prehistory? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What was the Agricultural Revolution? Was it a real revolution? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
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