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Criminal Justice Policy

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by: Victoria Ladrondeguevara

Criminal Justice Policy CRJU 20423

Victoria Ladrondeguevara
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About this Document

These are the notes that I have taken in class so far. I have more coming over the death penalty and what we will discuss in class this coming week.
Critical Issues in Criminal Justice
Mr. Kinkade
Class Notes
Criminal Justice




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Ladrondeguevara on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJU 20423 at Texas Christian University taught by Mr. Kinkade in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Critical Issues in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
I. Criminal Justice Policy A. Public, Press, and Government 1. Most policy is bad policy: it's inefficient and detrimental o Ex: war on drugs a. Gross misapplication of rhetoric i. 50% of the world's legal drugs are consumed by Americans, so we're basically fighting a war against ourselves b. Implies that there can be a victory i. We've fought 10 wars on drugs ii. We don't win iii. It's an issue of policing and public health -- not war c. Has been counterproductive to its intent i. Tough punishments due to drugs ii. Drug dealers are spending 30% now than they did before the war on drugs because of prison overcrowding d. Costs i. In 1989 (Manuel Noriega--president) a lot of drugs were being passed through Panama ii. The Bush Administration decided to take out Noriega and invaded Panama and arrested him. iii. It was $170 million to arrest Noriega iv. $30 million to prosecute Noriega v. A thousand lives were lost -- including Americans and innocent civilians vi. 50 deals were cut with other drug dealers -- that included Pablo Escobar's second in command vii. Drug outcomes increased after the arrest 2. Both sides of the aisle (both Democrats and Republicans) are guilty at bad policy a. Conservative Theology i. General deterrence 1. Support the death penalty ii. Makes crime an individual thing iii. The law is absolute b. Liberal Theology i. Correctional system should rehabilitate ii. Crime arises as a form of circumstance iii. Laws change (relative) c. Both are simplistic and counterproductive i. They contradict themselves 1. Conservatives don’t support gun control, but support the death penalty 3. Image is everything a. We base policy on our interpretation of reality b. Kant -- you cant know anything c. Everything you think you know is your interpretation of reality d. We tend to view reality as intersubjectivity e. What everyone believes as a total -- basically a mixture of what people believe II. Intersubjective Reality 1. Sources a. Personal experience b. Significant others c. Social institutions: church, governments, etc. d. Media - average American household will have the t.v. on 8 hours a day  If not, listen to the radio  If not, talk to friends 2. All media created things has a source based on the other three a. They interject their own beliefs i. Ex: Michael Moor and Bill O'Riley b. News creation is done un an economic environment i. Economic pressure on news creators creates distortion: 1. News creators have a need for novelty a. Take old realities and create something new 2. Decontextualization - takes things out of context a. Short Stories - more time for ads b. Ex: Halloween Sadist Scare 3. Poor follow up - usually a story is on the cover of newspapers and then it's not followed up a. Incomplete and distorted b. Ex: L.A. Freeway Shootings - "Road Rage" c. Ended up being a gang fight, an ATM holdup and an anonymous shooting 4. Loss of larger perspective - news has a tendency to cover violence: rape, and murder make up 1% of felony crime a. 80% of crime coverage is on rape and murder 5. There's a need for drama - fictions created a. Creates contrast conception b. News creators tend to make villains very villainous and victims very virtuous c. Ex: outlaw motorcycle gang members i. They were ex-military "POBOBS" ii. Known as Hell's Angels iii. Attorney said that they did satanic rituals and humiliated women 6. Amplification - occurs when the consequences of media coverage are covered by the media which in turn has its own consequences and the media covers is and so on a. Ex. British mugging: London Times described mugging as a "violent new form of street crime" b. Public became concerned so police created a task force to capture muggers c. Mugging arrests increased dramatically d. Media covered it and the cycle began again 7. Media coverage tends to be reactionary as opposed to rational and it tends to cause dysfunctional in the system 3. News creators manipulate people (Free Press) a. The use of criminal stereotypes i. Ex: organized crime -> mafia -> suits -> Italians ii. Adds interest to the story b. Presentation of opinion as fact c. Speaking through the sources i. Particular experts are brought in because their opinions match that of the news creators d. The use of loaded language i. Has emotional connotation that excites the public ii. Ex: using the word "butchered" as opposed to "killed" e. Selected presentation of fact i. Leaving out information to make an impression ii. Ex: kidnapping -- thousands of missing children  Most children are runaways f. Creating cause from context i. Fact is interjected into the story to create an impression ii. Ex: dropout rates stories usually have drug use g. The use of undocumented sources i. "government officials/police say" h. Over generalizing an opinion i. Bringing in a professional in the topic ii. Leads people to believe that ALL experts have the same opinions 4. The government also creates misconceptions a. Why? i. Because we have a limited attention span 1. They have to dumb down answers to please the public 2. We don’t understand the complex 3. Algor vs. George W. Bush (death penalty) a. George w. Bush believed in the death penalty. b. Algor said that he didn’t, but supported it to get votes ii. Unreality fits out crime control model 1. What they can do and budgets 2. Patriot Model - several people in charge 3. Bureaucratic Model - one person in charge 4. The U.S. uses the Bureaucratic Model, but the Patriot Model is the reality b. How? i. Focus general media 1. Press conferences 2. Ex: George W. Bush went before the American public and had a prop that was crack cocaine. He said that he bought the cocaine right outside the Whitehouse a. He was implying that you can now buy it anywhere b. However, the Secret Service set it up ii. Suppress information 1. Ex: Richard Nixon announced a major offense on heroin -- war on drugs was launched 2. Air America - emerged because of the Vietnam war a. Cambodians had opium to sell to get guns b. CIA sold heroin to Europe and we were basically drug dealers 3. Use all techniques about free press 5. We help create misconceptions (audience) a. Consuming public craves the dramatic and unusual i. So they sell what we want ii. You create policy on regularity NOT irregularity iii. We misinform ourselves b. Tend to be influenced on the crimeacy effect i. Hold on to the first thing we hear ii. First thing we hear is usually the most inaccurate c. Selective memory i. Attend and remember that which confirms our beliefs ii. It's hard to change our opinions


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