Two topics that was talked about this week
Two topics that was talked about this week Bio 110
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisha Hanson on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 110 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Anna casper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology I in Biology at Eastern Michigan University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Enzymes Then, number these molecules in order from the Highest (#1) to lowest (#4) - Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Formaldehyde, Methanol Energy - Capacity is cause change Gibbs Free Energy – Energy is a system or in a molecule that is available to do work. Kinetic energy – energy in motion Thermal energy – energy of random molecules movement (heat) Potential energy – energy that an object has because its position, location or energy that a molecule has because of the structure Which person has the lowest G? (person in water) Which person has the highest G? (diver) Draw a graph of an exergonic reaction - Label the activation energy (EA) on your graph - Label change in Gibbs Free energy (Delta G) on your graph - Using a dotted line, show how on enzyme would affect the reaction You set up experiments to monitor the rate of an enzyme – mediated reaction in which A > B + C. The enzyme’s range of temperature is 0 degrees to 50 degrees and its optimal temperature is about 35 degrees. - You run one experiment at 20 degrees C and another experiment at 25 degrees C. How will these temperatures affect the reaction? o 25 degrees C will go faster closer to actual temperature - You run one experiment at 60 Degrees C and another experiment at 90 degrees C. How will these temps. affect the reaction? o have any reaction the reaction will denature. In the cell, an excess of a product arises which enzyme would be the best choice to inhibit in this situation? Why? - Feedback Inhibition What do we call this type regulation? - Feedback Inhibition Example of an endergonic Reaction - Glutamic Acid + Ammonia > Glutamine - Cellular enzymes can’t catalyze endergonic reaction directly - (Can’t do reactions like this in a single step) Coupled Reaction - 1. Glutamic Acid + ATP > Phosphorylated Intermediate + ADP - 2. Phosphorylated intermediate + ADP > Glutamine + ADP + Pi ATP - Phosphate groups - Ribose Hydrolysis of ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - Inorganic Phosphate + P-P + Energy - Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Electron and Energy Reaction 1: CH4 +202>H20+C02 Which have higher G, reactants or products? - Reactants Exergonic or Endogenic? - Exergonic Spontaneous RxN? - Spontaneous Anabolic or Catabolic? - Catabolic Delta G Positive or Negative? - Negative Reaction 2: 6Co2 + 6H2O > 6H12O4 + 6O2 Which have higher G, reactants or products? - Products Exergonic or endogenic? - Endogenic Spontaneous RxN? - Not Anabolic or Catabolic? - Anabolic Delta G positive or negative? - Positive Carbon Dioxide + water > Ethane Does this reaction release energy or consume energy? - Consume What is happening to carbon in this redox reaction? - Reduced Cellular respiration is a redox reaction - Glucose + 6O2 > 6Co2 + ~32 ATP - Map the shared electrons in these bonds Is carbon oxidized? Reduced? Or no change? - Oxidized Is oxygen oxidized? Reduced? Or no change? - Reduced Emperor penguins live on fish and crustaceans. Each year they migrate overland to breeding grounds so miles away from the sea. For over 2 months the males incubate the eggs alone (they don’t eat). During this time, they lose up to 50% of their mass. Where did the mass go? - It was released as Co2 and H2O When you eat a Hershey’s bar, and your body burns the sugar in it for energy. Where does the carbon that was in the sugar eventually end up? - Carbon dioxide Mitochondrial structure - 1. Outer membrane - 2. Inner membrane - 3. Matrix - 4. Ribosomes - 5. DNA ATP is made by ATP Synthase - In the mitochondria - Chemiosmosis Voltage – separation of charge electrical potential energy Positive electrical potential – top of phospholipid bilayer Negative electrical potential – bottom of phospholipid bilayer Membrane potential – separation of charge across a phospholipid bilayer Electrochemical gradient - For ions, the direction the ion will cross is determined by two things - Concentration gradient > - Membrane potential > Together they are called the Electrochemical gradient What creates the gradient of proteins (H)? - Cytochromes Do cytochromes transport H+ with their gradient, or against their gradient? - Transporting against their gradient > must use energy - Cytochromes pump H+ into the inter-membrane space What energy source powers cytochromes? - Electron energy powers cytochromes from electrons carried by NADH + FADH2 How is energy carried by NADH used to make ATP? - NADH > NADH2 > Cytochromes > ADP + phosphate > ATP What is the “final electron acceptor” at the end of the ETC? - Oxygen from oxygen gas What is formed after the final acceptor accepts electrons? - Picks up some hydrogens and forms water In the last step of the ETC, molecule oxygen is used as the final electron acceptor. Where did this oxygen come from? - From your lungs and cardiovascular system Oxidation phosphorylation – formation of ATP by the addition of inorganic phosphate to ADP by the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. How does the structure of the inner membrane of a mitochondria support its function? - Cytochromes and ATP synthesis, more of these you have the move you can produce ATP These high energy electrons NADH and FADH2 are carrying – where do they come from? -
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