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BIO 1230 Notes February 3-6

by: Abby Joannes

BIO 1230 Notes February 3-6 BIO 123

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIO 123 > BIO 1230 Notes February 3 6
Abby Joannes
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover the class material from the week of February 3-6
Introduction to Human Biology
Professor Minor
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
BIO 123 Notes February 3-6 February 3: Chromosomes and Cell Division PPT Terms to know Zygote: We start as a single cell called a zygote. It carries all of the information that we need for life. These cells need to be copied, called mitosis. We have two complete sets when we are made, called diploid. Mitosis: for growth and repair. Every cell it makes is genetically identical. Keeps going throughout life. Meiosis: only used during reproduction to reduce genetic material. Reduced to “n” or haploid, which is one full set of chromosomes. Diploid --> Haploid = meiosis. Fertilization: egg and sperm join together as haploids to create diploid again. Interphase: the first phase of reproducing a cell. G1 phase: taking care of regular cell growth and business. If it gets a trigger, cell division starts S phase: chromosomes replicate. At this phase, DNA is doubled, and starts to shut down and being the process of condensing. When the DNA is doubled, it is called chromatin. G2 phase: recovery phase. Mitosis: four phases Prophase: nuclear membrane begins to breakdown. Chromosomes finish condensing. Metaphase: second phase, chromosomes line up. Anaphase: chromosomes separate Telophase: chromosomes finish separating Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm Chromosomes: DNA wound around histones Chromatid: one line of the chromosomes (there are 2). What results after chromosome is copied Centromere: what holds the chromosome together Chromatin: uncondensed DNA Feburary 5: Meiosis • Haploid: n, they only have one member of each homogenous pair of chromosomes • Functions of Meiosis (there are 2) o Keeps number of chromosomes in a body cell constant over generations o Increases genetic variability in a population • Preparation for sexual reproduction o Meiosis 1 § Daughter cells receive one of each kind of chromosome o Meiosis II § Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell independently and sister chromatids making up each chromosome separates • Genetic variability o Arises largely because of the shuffling of maternal and paternal forms of genes during meiosis § Crossing over: corresponding pieces of chromatids of maternal and paternal homologues are exchanged during synapsis when they’re lined up side by side § Independent assortment • Extra or missing chromosomes o Nondisjunction: failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis o Trisomy: when there are three representatives of one chromosome o Turner syndrome: when there is only a single X chromosome


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