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Notes from 2/1 and 2/5

by: Emma Notetaker

Notes from 2/1 and 2/5 KIN202

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN202 > Notes from 2 1 and 2 5
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Notes from 2/1 and 2/5 (not 2/3 because class was cancelled).
General Nutrition for Health & Human Performance
Wesley Smith
Class Notes
Kinesiology, nutrition
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN202 at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Nutrition for Health & Human Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
KIN202 Day 8 February 1, 2016   • Vitamins and Minerals cont. o Water Soluble Vitamins ▯ Vitamin C: (female 75 MG; male 90 MG) • Important for connected tissue synthesis – disease with issue is scurvy • One of best water-soluble antioxidants – gets rid of free radicals in water portions of body (ex: plasma) – which damage tissues, promote aging, etc. • Citrus fruits, cabbage, greens, red bell peppers, tomatoes, sea vegetables* (seaweed) (best source) ▯ Vitamin B1: (1/1-1.2 MG) • Thiamine • Whole grains, spinach, legumes, veggies, nuts, seeds • Lack of thiamine causes Beriberi o Unable to stand because blood stays in their legs and they faint ▯ Vitamin B2: (female 1.1 MG; male 1.3 MG) • Riboflavin • Easy to get but not in processed food • Eggs, dairy, fish, spinach , mushrooms, asparagus • Energy production • Alcohol use can cause vitamin deficiency o Quasi state between dream and reality ▯ Vitamin B3: (female 14 MG; male 16 MG) • Niacin • Healthy lean meats (chicken, beef, fish), vegetables are healthier (spinach, potatoes), bell peppers, asparagus, mushrooms, tomatoes, peanuts • Energy production • “Eat for your mitochondria” ▯ Vitamin B5: (5 MG) • Pantothenic acid • Coenzyme A • Very abundant in lots of foods – you get it if you eat real food • Mushrooms, sweet potatoes, avocado ▯ Vitamin B6: (1.3 MG) KIN202 Day 8 February 1, 2016   • Pyridoxine • Poultry and fish, tuna, spinach, cabbage, bok choy (#2 rated vegetable in world for nutrient density - #1 is watercress), garlic, turnip greens and cauliflower • Protein synthesis • Vegans have to look at it – can get from broccoli, spinach, bok choy, etc. • Needed for CNS neurotransmitters ▯ Vitamin B9: (400 MG) • Folate (folic acid – not same thing) • Best source: lentils, bean s o Also asparagus o Might reduce anxiety • Important for cell division and protein synthesis • Key for pregnancy – most important in first trimester o Development of neural tube ▯ nervous system o Needs 520 MG a day – might cause defects if you don’t get that • Humans have less of the enzyme that make folic acid folate than rats • Folic acid may be a carcinogen ▯ Vitamin B12: (2.4 UG (maybe more)) • Fish, poultry, dairy, eggs, beef, pork • Not found in vegetables • We make in our bodies but only in colon so we don’t absorb it • Vegans can eat seaweed to get B12 • 4-7 UG maybe instead of 2.4 UG (micrograms) • 1 in 6 meat eaters are B12 deficient as well as most vegetarians/vegans • Most dieticians would advocate supplementations for this • Sardines, salmon, tuna, seaweed ▯ Choline: (female 425 MCG; male 450 MCG) KIN202 Day 8 February 1, 2016   ▯ Rebound deficiencies: body gets accustomed to higher level of vitamins and develops deficiency when it gets less • So you shouldn’t take too many of these • Ex) Rebound scurvy ▯ B Vitamins found in mitochondria – used for energy production – help make ATP ▯ B vitamins aid with memory • Alcohol causes vitamins to not be processed well ▯ don’t remember what they did the night before ▯ B 1-5 play role in metabolism – turning fuel (protein, fats, carbs) into energy ▯ B 6-12 play role in synthesis of proteins and DNA replication – development, etc. • Deficiency may cause anemia ▯ Easier lost in steaming vegetables because water soluble ▯ Vegetarians lack omega-3s and B12 – might need to supplement KIN202 Day 9 February 5, 2016   • Notes from today that are important on test: o Sources of vitamins o Vitamin supplements o Overview of minerals o RDA for calcium, sodium, potassium, iron o Magnesium – health implications • If you add more fruits and vegetables, you will get nutrients you need o Ex) one plate of salad every day, or adding veggies to burger or pizza • Multivitamins o Study: those who took vitamins every day didn’t reduce risk of cancer, etc. vs. those who didn’t take vitamins ▯ No benefit at all for prevention of any chronic disease • Sodium ( Na) o Most abundant extracellular cation o Major source is not table salt, it’s from eating pre-prepared foods – anything that has been cooked for you – whether its in a box, if they heat it up, or from a restaurant or cafeteria ▯ When you add sugar to salty food you can’t tell how salty it is: ex) sweet and sour sauce, coca cola • Makes you thirsty, crave more, etc. o Increases calcium excretion o Difficult to determine sodium content in food o RDA ▯ < 2300 mg ▯ < 1500 mg (high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes (DM), kidney disease, African Americans need this amount) o Over time, we now have more sodium than we need and not enough potassium o One meal from a fast food restaurant gives you more sodium than you need in a day o Makes blood vessels stiffer over time ▯ Heart failure risk increases, etc. o #1 thing we need to reduce (and sugar) ▯ Long-term studies prove this (not short term) ▯ 95% of Americans get too much salt o Functions: ▯ Water, pH, and electrolyte regulation KIN202 Day 9 February 5, 2016   ▯ Nerve transmission ▯ Muscle contraction o Deficiency : anorexia, muscle atrophy, poor growth, weight loss, nausea • Potassium (K) o Major intracellular cation o Avocado, yogurt, leafy greens, mushrooms, tomatoes, eggs, bananas ▯ Mangos, potatoes, etc. have most – bananas have very little o High in potassium and/or fiber diet ▯ good diet o RDA ▯ 3.5 g o 95% of Americans deficient in potassium, 95% of Americans get too much sodium o Makes blood vessels more compliant • Chloride o Abundant in diets • Calcium o Deficiency linked to major disease: osteoporosis (frailness – ex) after falling die a year later) ▯ Kills more women than breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and both combined o Functions: ▯ Structural component of bones and teeth ▯ Muscle contraction ▯ Membrane permeability ▯ Nerve conduction ▯ Blood clotting ▯ Hormone release o RDA ▯ 1,000 mg (19-50 years old) ▯ More for 51+ (1,500 mg) o Seafood with bones, fortified foods, some leafy green vegetables, calcium supplements, dairy o Works with vitamin K to help bones o Bones reach peak mass at about age 24 ▯ Most important to get enough during childhood through early 20s ▯ Bones stop growing in early 20s (may cause freshman 15) KIN202 Day 9 February 5, 2016   o 50% of American children get less than 400 mg of calcium per day o Vitamin D, sugar, protein enhances calcium absorption o Phosphorus, iron, and fatty acids inhibited by excessive Ca o Sodium, protein, caffeine enhances calcium excretion • Phosphorus o Quality meats, fish, seeds o Not an issue in terms of deficiency • Magnesium o Really important – ATP o Heart health o Green leafy vegetables (main source), nuts, seeds, legumes o Magnesium intake, life span, heart disease/sudden cardiac death ▯ correlation (study) ▯ Magnesium supplements did help ▯ Fortifying foods, water supply, etc. ▯ RDA: 400 ▯ Vegetarians did a little better than regular Americans but neither had enough in diet • Iron (Fe) o Micro mineral o Functions: ▯ Oxygen transport and use ▯ Amino acid metabolism ▯ Antioxidant ▯ Carnitine ▯ Collagen ▯ Thyroid hormone synthesis o Fatigue, anemia, etc. o Heat kills red blood cells – hemolysis – why people get pale even with sunburn, etc. o Contact sports – repeated bruising – damages red blood cells o RDA: ▯ 8-10 mg – males (men have more hemoglobin than women) ▯ 18 mg – females ▯ Can be toxic if you have more than 45 mg a day o Heme Iron ▯ Meat: lamb, mutton, beef, ostrich, pork, fish, poultry, game, shellfish ▯ Easiest to absorb KIN202 Day 9 February 5, 2016   o Non-Heme Iron ▯ Vegetables and eggs ▯ Nuts, eggs, raisins, dried & baked beans, whole grain breads, dark leafy green vegetables, chocolate o Vitamin C enhances Fe absorption 300% ▯ (Ex: tomatoes with salad) • Selenium (Se) o Brazil nuts, etc. o Get from soil o Antioxidant, thyroid hormone synthesis o RDA: 55 mcg


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