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Chem 113 Notes 3rd Week

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Chem 113 Notes 3rd Week Chem 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 113 > Chem 113 Notes 3rd Week
Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover the last part of thermodynamics and the first part of kinetics, which will be on the first exam.
General Chemistry II
Ingrid Marie Laughman
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 113 at Colorado State University taught by Ingrid Marie Laughman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Coupled Reactions • ex. Cu2S(s)—>2Cu(s) + S(s) —∆Grxn=86.2 kJ and ∆Hrxn=76.3 kJ, reaction is non spontaneous and can’t happen at room temp. —calculate ∆S A. ∆S of S(s)=321 J/K/mol, ∆S Cu(s)=33.2 J/K/mol, ∆S Cu2S(s)=120.9 J/ K/mol B. ∆Srxn=(#moles x ∆S) products - (#moles x ∆S) reactants C. ∆Srxn=-22.4 J/K D. if ∆H is positive and ∆S is negative, ∆G will always be positive under any temp. • couple this reaction with another driving reaction to make it run: S(s) + O2(g)— >SO2(g), ∆G=-300.1 kJ —Cu2S(s) + O2(g)—>2Cu(s) + SO2(g) —∆Grxn=86.2 kJ + (-300.1 kJ) —∆Grxn=-213.9 kJ, reaction is now spontaneous —no “change,” meaning extra energy is lost to environment and cannot be recovered to run the reaction more times —only driving reactions can be repeated to get enough ∆G • remember ∆G=∆H - T∆S —this equation can be used to determine the signs of ∆H and ∆S at high/low temps Intro to Kinetics smog=organic molecules + sunlight + combustion products—>NO2 radical—>ozone • • ex. NO(g) + O3(g)—NO2(g) + O2(g) —NO and O3 molecules enter transition state when N with 1 electron nears an outer O in ozone (development of bond) —covalent bond forms between N and O and bond breaks between outer and inner O in ozone —this reaction is bimolecular (2 molecules in reactants) • activation energy (Ea)- amount of energy it takes to get to transition state (almost always positive) —difference in energy between reactants and products is the ∆H • for a reaction to occur, reactants must have: —collision —energy (Ea) —geometry rate of reaction = ∆molecule concentration/∆time • —sign is positive or negative depending on if the concentration of the molecule decreases (reactant) or increases (product) • ex. aA + bB—>cC + dD —reactant rate = -(1/a)(∆A/∆t) —product rate = +(1/d)(∆D/∆t) • unimolecular reactions are faster than bimolecular or termolecular reactions


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