Psychology 101 Lecture 4 notes
Psychology 101 Lecture 4 notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana McGhee on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Alexa Tullett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro To Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Psychology Lecture 4 continued (2216) MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION Mutations: errors that occur when DNA is replicated o Can lead to changes in allele frequency by introducing a new allele into the gene pool Migration: movement to a new location o Can lead to changes in allele frequency by introducing new survival and reproduction pressures Genetic drift: change due to chance or accident o Can lead to changes in allele frequency by random fluctuations ADAPTATION A change due to natural selection Myth: all human characteristics are perfectly adapted to their environment Myth: natural selection is moving towards a goal Myth: humans are more evolved than other species Myth: if something is natural this means that it is good (A.K.A the naturalistic fallacy) EVOLUTION AND THE BRAIN Over 7 million years of hominin evolution the brain more than doubled in size, likely due to the intelligence required to manage social interaction Brain size has stayed relatively constant over the past 100,000 years, but humans have still gotten smarter suggesting that brain function might be changing even if size isn’t EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR Like physical characteristics, behaviors can also be selected for by the process of natural selection o Ex: Imprinting keeps young geese safe by keeping them close to their mother ALTRUISM Sacrifice of one’s self for the benefit of another individual Why hasn’t altruistic behavior been eliminated if it lowers the fitness of the altruist? Kin selection: help you provide to another person who is closely related to you Reciprocal altruism: help you provide to another person when you expect the person to return the favor SEXUAL SELECTION The development of traits that help an individual compete for mates (one type of natural selection) o May help account for difference in mating strategies between males and females o Males yield lower investment in offspring and are typically less picky about mates o Females yield higher investment in offspring and are typically more picky about mates PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION A new study shows that Donald trump hair is dependent on a single gene. The Donald Trump Hair allele is dominant (T) and the normal hair is recessive (t). Based on the info, which is true? A. A person who is homozygous for the t allele will have Donald trump hair B. A person who is heterozygous will have hair that is in between C. A person who has both the T and t allele Lecture 5 (2216) THE HARD PROBLEM “how is it that any thing so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as a result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the experience of Djin when Aladdin rubbed his lamp.” –T.H. Huxley NEURON A cell of the nervous system that sends and receives messages o Axon: sends messages o Dendrites: travel to the axon o Axon terminals: the end of the axon GLIA Cells in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to neurons Myelin: the insulating material covering some axons o Helps speed up signaling SIGNALING WITHIN NEURONS Resting potential: the measure of the electrical charge across a neural membrane when the neuron is not processing information Outside the axon is more positively charged than inside the axon o This results in a resting potential of 70mV When depolarization occurs and the membrane potential reaches 65mV an action potential occurs Action potential: the electrical signal that propagates along a neurons axon 70 is more polarized than 65 the action potential propagates down the axon to the axon terminals at this point, the neurons signals to adjacent neurons (i.e. synaptic transmission occurs) SIGNALING BETWEEN NEURONS signaling between neurons is a chemical process in which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal and then bind to receptors on the dendrites of adjacent neurons NEUROTRANSMITTERS Acetylcholine Epinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine o involved in reward circuits in the brain Serotonin o involved in positive mood Glutamate GABA Endorphins STRUCTURES OF NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system o Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system o Part of nervous system that regulates extremities Sympathetic divison o Fight or flight Parasympathetic system SPINAL CORD White matter in spinal cord is white because of the myelin Gray matter Spinal nerves Vertebra Functions include reflexes that bypass the brain: o When you knock your kneecap and the function goes to the spinal cord but not the brain BRAINSTEM AND MIDBRAIN Midbrain Pons Medulla Functions include pain, sleep, heartbeat CEREBELLUM Functions include fine motor movements, automatic behaviors SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES Wrinkled part of your brain Thalamus Basal ganglia Functions include integrating sensory input, generating voluntary movement Cingulate cortex Hippocampus Amygdala Hypothalamus Functions include emotion and memory CEREBRAL CORTEX Temporal lobe Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Functions include planning, logical reasoning, problem solving, and judgment Primary somatosensory cortex Primary motor cortex LATERALIZATION Split brain patients demonstrate some functions of the brain are lateralized to one hemisphere or the other Language lateralizes to the left hemisphere Movement of the left hand lateralizes to the right hemisphere If the right hemisphere sees the word “ball” the person will say they see nothing, but be able to pick a ball as the “correct” objext with their left hand SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Comprised of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves Each pair includes and afferent nerve and an efferent nerve Afferent: sensory information o Muscles and organs Efferent: voluntary movement o Central nervous system AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The divison of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of glands, organs, and smooth muscles o Usually operates without conscious direction o Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions often have competing nervous systems Sympathetic nervous system: the division of the autonomic nervous system that coordinates arousal Parasympathetic nervous system: division of the autonomic nervous system associated with rest, repair, and energy storage ENDOCRINE SYSTEM A system responsible for the release of hormones into the blood stream o Effects are slower but farther reaching then the release of neurotransmitters from the axon terminal
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