Human Nutrition (244) Notes
Human Nutrition (244) Notes NUTR 244 002
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NUTR 244 002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariana Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 244 002 at University of New Mexico taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Set of principles developed by US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services Designed to promote health, reduce risk of chronic diseases, and reduce obesity/overweight Updated every 5 years Five key recommendations from 2015 follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake shift to healthier food and beverage choices support healthy eating patterns for all Focus on variety, nutrient density Increase intake of fruits and vegetables Make at least half of your grain foods “whole grain” Choose fatfree or lowfat milk/dairy products Choose proteins lower in solid fats and calories such as lean beef, skinless poultry, and seafood Choose foods that provide fiber and key nutrients including potassium, calcium, and vitamin D Limit calories from foods of concern Reduce consumption of these foods or food components: sodium: linked to high blood pressure and calcium loss fat: limit saturated fat to 10% of calories, no trans fat sugars: limit to 10% of calories, contributes to obesity and tooth decay alcohol: if you already drink it, drink in moderation USDA Food Patterns MyPlate is the visual representation of the USDA food patterns Replaced the prior MyPyramid graphic and guidelines Intended to help Americans make better food choices Key components eat in moderation to balance calories eat a variety of foods consume the right proportion of each recommended food group personalize your eating plan increase your physical activity set goals for gradually improving your food choices and lifestyle Five food groups “Make half your grains whole” eat at least 3 ounces of while grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice or pasta each day they provide fiber rich carbs and are good sources of B vitamins, iron, zinc, protein and magnesium “Vary your veggies” eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas eat at least 2 ½ cups of vegetables each day vegetables provide fiber and phytochemicals, carbs, vitamins A & C, folate, potassium and magnesium “Focus on fruits” eat a greater variety of fruits go easy on fruit juices, they contribute a lot of sugar and provide little fiber) eat at least 1 ½ cups of fruit each day fruits provide fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins A & C, folate, potassium and magnesium “Get your calcium rich foods” choose lowfat or fat free dairy products lactose free options get 3 cups daily dairy foods provide calcium, phosphorus B, vitamins, proteins, and many are fortified with vitamins A & D “Go lean with protein” includes meat, poultry, fish, beans, peas, eggs, nuts, seeds, and soy products choose lowfat or lean meats and poultry switch to baking, broiling, or grilling eat about 5 ½ ounces of lean proteins foods each day this food group provides protein, phosphorus, B vitamins, magnesium, iron and zinc Empty calories these are calories from solid fast and/or added sugars that provide few or no nutrients limit these calories based on age, physical activity, diet, etc. foods with the most empty calories include pretzels, soda, alcohol, cake 1 cup = a fist 1 oz. = a thumb 1 teaspoon = thumb tip ½ cup = tennis ball (fruits and vegetables) 3 oz. meat = palm of your hand Eating out on a healthful diet Eating in restaurants often involves high calorie, high fat and high sodium foods large portion sizes About 75% of consumers eat out at least once a week Research shows a positive association between the number of restaurants per person in a given geographic area and local obesity rates Mediterranean diet “red” meat is eaten only occasionally Eggs, poultry, fish and sweets are consumed weekly or less Primary fat used in food preparation is olive oil, a healthful monosaturated fat Daily foods include high quality grains Achieving and maintaining a healthful body weight What is a healthful body weight? Appropriate for age and physical development Maintained without constant dieting Based on genetic background and family history of body shape/weight Compatible with normal blood pressure, lipid levels, and glucose tolerance Promotes good eating habits and allows for regular physical activity Acceptable to you Evaluating body weight Determining if a person’s body weight is healthful should include determining the BMI measuring body composition assessing the pattern of fat distribution Body Mass Index Expresses the ratio of a person’s weight to the square of his or her weight BMI= weight (kg) / height (m)^2 BMI values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased health risks Not an indication of body composition Gives an idea of health risk What is a healthful body weight? Underweight: having too little body fat to maintain health (BMI<18.5) Overweight: having a moderate amount of excess body fat (BMI 2529.9) Obese: having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health (BMI 3039.9) Morbid obesity: body weight exceeding 100% of normal, a very high risk for serious health consequences (BMI > 40) Body Composition Measure body fat and lean body mass Underwater weighing Skinfolds Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) Dualenergy xray absorptiometry (DXA) Bod pod Fat distribution pattern Appleshaped: upper body increased risk for chronic diseases men tend to store fat in the abdominal region Pearshaped: lower body no significant increased chronic disease risk women tend to store fat in the lower body Abdominal fat increases risk for chronic disease Waist to hip ratio Men: higher than 0.90 Women: higher than 0.80 Waist circumference Men: above 40 in Women: above 35 in Case study 5’11” and weighs 215 lbs, wants to be under 200 lbs in 16 weeks 3500 calories in 1 pound of fat, 3500/7days a week=500 less a day Needs to go from eating 2450 calories a day to 1950 Gaining and losing weight Weight gain or loss depends on energy intake vs. energy expenditure genetic factors childhood weight behavioral factors social factors Energy balance Energy intake (from food and beverage) = energy expenditure (at rest and during physical activity) Energy intake When total daily energy intake exceeds the amount of energy expended, weight gain results An excess intake of approximately 3,500 kcal will result in a gain of 1 pound Energy expenditure Energy is expended to maintain basic body functions anad to perform activities Total 24hour energy expenditure is composed of three components: basal metabolic rate (BMR) thermis effect of food (TEF) energy cost of physical activity Direct calorimetry: a method that measures the amount of heat the body releases Indirect calorimetry: estimates energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production Thermic effect of food energy expended to process food about 510% of the energy content of a meal Energy cost of physical activity about 1535% of total daily energy output Basal metabolic rate Energy expended to maintain basal (resting) functions of the body Includes respiration, circulation, maintaining body temperature, new cell synthesis, secretion of hormones and nervous system activity Primary determinant of BMR is the amount of lean body mass Gaining and Losing Weight Weight gain or loss depends on energy intake vs. energy expenditure genetic factors childhood weight behavioral factors social factors Genetic Factors Influence height, weight, body shape, metabolic rate About 25% of one’s body fat is accounted for by genetic influences Different ideas have been suggested to explain the impact of genetics on body fat thrifty gene theory set point theory Thrifty Gene Theory Proposes that a gene (or genes) causes people to be energetically thrifty People with this gene expend less energy than other people Protects from starvation during times of extreme food shortages A “thrifty gene” has not been identified SetPoint Theory Suggests that body weight stays within a narrow range (setpoint) Compensates for changes in energy balance and keeps a person’s weight at their set point Physiological Factors Hunger and satiety (driven by hypothalamus) Proteins affect the regulation of appetite and storage of body fat leptin acts to reduce food intake ghrelin stimulates appetite peptide yy decreases appetite uncoupling proteins in brown adipose tissue increase energy expenditure Increase satiety (or decrease food intake) hormones stomach expansion nutrient absorption rom the small intestine Decrease satiety (or increase food intake) hormones neuropeptide y (hypothalamus) decreased blood glucose levels Cultural and Economic Factors Religious beliefs Learned food preferences Fast food culture Sedentary lifestyle Economic status Access to healthcare Psychologic and Social Factors Appetite: psychological drive to eat Meal timing and size: portion and distortion Sight and fragrance of foods Mood, depression Barriers to physical activity Technological lifestyle Social pressures Underweight As harmful as obesity Can be due to many factors genetics consuming too few calories for exercise level heavy smoking underlying disease anorexia nervosa Overweight BMI between 25 and 29.9kg/m2 Health risks: high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep disorders Many overweight people will become obese Recommend healthful eating and regular physical activity to prevent additional weight gain, achieve a healthful weight, support long term health Obesity and Morbid Obesity Obesity: BMI fro 30 to 39.9kg/m2 Morbid obesity: > 100% normal weight Considered an epidemic in the United States Over 68% of the population is overweight or obese, 35% are obese Linked to many chronic diseases hypertension dyslipidemia diabetes heart disease stroke Metabolic Syndrome A cluster of factors increases risk for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke: abdominal obesity (waist circumference > or = to 40in for men and 35in for women) triglyceride levels (≥ 150 mg/dL) HDL cholesterol levels (< 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women) blood pressure (≥ 130/85 mm Hg) fasting blood glucose (≥ 100 mg/dL) How do people become obese? Genetic and physiological factors Childhood obesity linked to adult obesity Critical periods might increase risk gestation and early infancy period of weight gain (adiposity rebound) that occurs between 5 and 7 years of age adolescence or puberty Social factors Obesity Treatment Lifestyle: lowcalorie diet, regular exercise Prescription medications Over the counter medications/supplements Surgery for morbid obesity vertical banded gastroplasty gastric bypass surgery (most dangerous) gastric banding liposuction Achieve and Maintain Healthful Weight Healthful weight change requires gradual change in energy intake regular and appropriate physical activity behavior modification techniques Tips avoid fad diets achieve negative energy balance Follow the recommended serving sizes Reduce high fat and high energy food intake Consume foods that are relatively low in energy density Participate in regular physical activity Incorporate appropriate behavior modifications into daily life Set SMART goals specific measureable attainable realistic timely
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