Environmental Studies (ENVS) 002 Lecture Week 3 Notes
Environmental Studies (ENVS) 002 Lecture Week 3 Notes ENVS 002 - A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sonia Ferrante on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 002 - A at University of Vermont taught by Ingrid Lauren Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see D2:SU:International Env Stdies in Environmental Studies at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
ENVS002 Week 3 Notes Sonia Ferrante “Collaboration is not necessarily good for all parties” (Tsing 2005, 161) Indigenous knowledge is taken into metropolitan science industries for money; indigenous people get no credit System isn’t an equal give and take Classifying Protected Areas 1968: 3 Catagories: Scientific reserve National Park National Monument 1978: Increase in types of protected areas (3 > 10+) 1994: Condensed List “Let’s include more people” Ignorance of politics by outsiders Ignorance of local hierarchies and policies Who is benefitting who in conservation? Fortress Narrative: the model of fortress conservation is to “put a fence up” and tell stories about the space. STORIES MATTER! Many longterm Gorongosan residents think the park is recreating, repeating, and extending the negative legacy of the park into the present (speaking about Greg Carr) Portugal’s Salazar: wanted to increase production in Gorongosa (and other colonies) to compensate for the poor financial situation in Portugal. Taxed the people Forced local people to work on plantations and create roads for tourists *Greg Carr Foundation creates tension with people who had previously lost their land! Short History of Gorongosa (1960present day): 1960s: Gorongosa is one of the “best game reserves in Africa” 1976’92: Civil war decimates local animal populations and communities 1990s: Democratic Mozambique is labelled the poorest country in the world and “can’t afford to rebuild on its own 2000s: Enter Greg Carr > claim over space Local Stories: Slash & Burn – what needs saving? The forest was STILL there o In 2011, there had been damage to the forest, most likely a result of slash and burn agriculture o Schuetz’s argument: Greg Carr’s intervention terrified people who had experienced the tragedies of the civil war and decided to damage the area so Carr would leave Logic: “Get rid of the forest, get rid of Greg” o To further the degradation of the mountain, women refused to plant fruit trees, which require time and care. Instead, they were planting fast/cash crops to cut loses and get out of Gorongosa In short, the forest was disappearing, but not because of Greg Carr’s logic Two Types of Intervention: Parks Species lists (Bonus) Celebrities Celebrity & the Environment – Dan Brockington 1. Popular endorsement of environmental causes by celebrities a. i.e. Leonardo DiCaprio 2. Wildlife Filmmakers a. i.e. Steve Irwin (RIP ) and David Attenborough b. interviewing < people c. “raw masculinity” d. Words they use come from their own cultural backgrounds i. Words vary by location and background 3. Celebrity Conservationists a. i.e. Greg Carr, Jane Goodall, E.O. Wilson Celebrities and the Environment racial politics of white conservationists in Africa and Indian conservationists in India. The Western market works to shape conservation efforts in Africa > there is a demand for “white superheroes” that Africa hopes to fill. Many stereotypes about Africa and who needs aid The convergence of parks, science, film, celebrities, and list making is a growing business*** o Until Westerners take control of the environment, it is “lost” In the 80s: Concerts were held during the droughts in Africa to raise money and donate to aid organizations. Technology: surveillance via DRONES! Biodiversity Conservation appears to be the driving force behind the continued expansion of protected areas/parks, BUT: The rise in protected areas have more history that stretches longer Introducing Fresh Water Issues The Basic Hydrologic Cycle How does water flow between different properties? How does water move through a landscape? (Think SPATIALLY) Water Scarcity Water withdrawal varies by country Economic water scarcity: can’t pay for water Physical water scarcity o Usually results from increased industrial water use Definition of Water Scarcity (according to FAO 2013): insufficient water available to meet demand, degradation of water quality, competition between sectors for water use, and regional & international conflicts for water use Water Abundance Too much water in a particular place and time can be devastating: Think of Hurricane Irene and its damage Flood control = major concern, inland as well as on the coast Contamination of water can happen in water source and water abundant situations or contexts Water Quality Clean water is necessary for survival. Contaminated water can kill slowly or quickly 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases every year (WHO 2013) Certain chemicals can contaminate water over time and cause concern o One of the biggest humancaused water disasters happened through the provision of well water in Bangladesh, which unleashed natural arsenic into the supply of water to many households Bangladesh is located on a low land, which is prone to drought and flood Very serious cancers arise as a result. 21+ million people exposed to high arsenic levels in Bangladesh Purpose of the deep water wells in Bangladesh (after the arsenic incident) o Give clean drinking water to the people o Bring people together Unfortunately, these wells won’t last forever Drilling deeper for water could cause arsenic deposits to sink deeper Water Quality and Health Flint: history of water privatization Water’s Spatial Complexity: Along a river system, many things contribute to water contamination: o Drugs o Chemicals o Industrial Waste Daily needs in a river system: o Drinking water o Cleaning of clothes and dishes, etc. Some people are more dependent on the river than others, i.e. homeless people vs. rich people There are socially sanctioned appropriate and inappropriate behavior when it comes to water use.
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