New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Life 103- week 3

by: Alexis Darling

Life 103- week 3 LIFE 103

Alexis Darling
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

One week of notes
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


Reviews for Life 103- week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/16
Fungi: All are heterotrophs, meaning they consume organic carbon to grow. While they are most related to animals than to plants or other eukaryotes, they absorb nutrients from outside of their bodies,  unlike animals. Nutrition: Most are Saprophytic, meaning they eat dead organic matter by way of excreting  digestive enzymes, which break down the matter outside of their cells, then the small compounds are absorbed. Therefore they grow in and towards their food and lack stomachs. Body structure: Some are single celled (called “yeast”), but most are multicellular which allows them to expand to absorb more nutrients. Their cells grow end to end to make long filaments  called hyphae which interweave to become bunches of mycelia. These thin branches are  specialized for maximum surface area so that they absorb as much as possible. Their cell walls are made of chitin… Symbiotic relationships (both benefit): Mycorrhizae­ fungi grow into the roots of plants so that they absorb carbohydrates and other  nutrients from the plants, but the plants also receive from fungi ions and minerals, which fungi  are best at absorbing. Lichens­ photosynthetic microorganisms, either green algae or cyanobacteria, grow in a layer  under lichen surface and supply carbon compounds or nitrogen to the fungi while the fungi  protects the microorganisms Sexual or asexual life cycles Haploid spores come together in two steps: Plasmogamy­ cytoplasm from two parent mycelia come together         ­as the nuclei remain separate the cells are called heterokaryons Karyogamy­ nuclei come together and officially make the cell diploid The diploid phase eventually undergoes meiosis, including the factors of crossing over      and independent assortment for genetic diversity. Fungi Main Groups ● Chytrids­ unifying ancestors, still have flagella ● Zygomycetes­ live in all sorts of environments and have many different feeding  methods ● Glomeromycetes­ responsible for mycorrhizae in 80% of plant species ● Ascomycetes­ called sac fungi due to their spores for sexual reproduction held in  asci which collectively are contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps ● Basidiomycetes­ fruiting bodies from sexual reproduction called basidiocarps Seedless Land Plants: All land plants with embryos called Embryophytes, which evolved to colonize areas and  diversify. Sporopollenin­ durable layer found in plant spore walls to prevent zygotes from desiccation  (drying out) as plants came out of their underwater environments onto dry land Land plants began as seedless nonvascular then developed into vascular plants to grow tall… Bryophytes:  The seedless nonvascular plants Made up of 3 main groups: ? Liverworts ? Hornworts ? Mosses Five key traits: ● Alternation of generations­  1. gametophyte­ haploid, multicellular growth; purpose= produce  gametes by mitosis so that one female and one male gamete can form a  sporophyte 2. sporophyte­ (formed by two gametes coming together) diploid,  multicellular growth; purpose= produce haploid spores by meiosis to grow more  gametophytes *spend most of life cycle in gametophyte stage (multicellular haploid plant) ● Multicellular, Dependent Embryos­ Once the male gamete has undergone  fertilization with the female gamete, the embryo formed requires nutrients from the  female gametophyte (site of fertilization). ● Sporangia to produce spores­ Sporangia are the organs in which the sporophyte  produces walled spores through meiosis  *spore walls made of sporopollenin for  protection ● Multicellular Gametangia­ The gametophytes have female gametangia  (archegonia) or male gametangia (antheridia) which produce gametes. Male gametangia  releases the sperm, female gametangia maintains the egg and are the site of fertilization. ● Apical Meristems­ the tips of the roots and shoots must be apical meristems from  which the cells grow out of and differentiate. Purpose= growth/elongation of roots and  formation of leaves Other properties: ­ cuticle­ waxy layer on epidermis to protect from desiccation ­ stromata­ cells which form little holes in the surface of the leaf for gas exchange ­ heterosporous­ the spores formed are either male (microspores) or female  (megaspores); no one gametophyte can form both types of gametes Seedless Vascular Plants: 2 mains groups: ? Lycophytes­ club and spike “mosses” (not true moss because they have vascular  structures) and quillworts ? Monilophytes­ ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns Three key traits: ● Majority of life cycle spent as sporophytes ● Vascular tissue (like tubes)­ xylem for water and minerals        ­ phloem for food; sugars, amino acids, organic products ● Developed roots and leaves­ these roots have vascular tissues, unlike the Rhizoids of mosses, and keep them more strongly anchored Other properties: ­ Sporophylls­ modified leaves that contain spore producing structures ­ Sori (plural, singular=sorus)­ bunches of sporangia on the underside of  sporophylls ­ Sporangia­ location of meiosis, capsule that contains haploid spores ­ Homosporous­ spores produced are all the same (not female or male) and all  develop into bisexual gametophytes which produce both female and male gametes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.