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Chapter 3 Outline

by: Amanda Martinez

Chapter 3 Outline PSY 2012

Amanda Martinez
GPA 3.78

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Outline for Chapter 3 of Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding 3rd Edition
General Psychology
Class Notes
General Psychology, PSY 2012, UF, chapter 3
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Martinez on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chapter  3:  Biological  Psychology   •   Ancient  Egyptians  believed  that  the  heart  was  the  center  of  the  human  soul  and  the   brain  was  irrelevant  to  metal  life   •   Greeks  said  the  brain  was  the  source  of  the  psyche   o   Some  were  convinced  that  the  brain  was  only  a  radiator   o   Cooling  the  heart  that  when  it  becomes  overheated   •   Ancients  correlated  that  the  heart  was  the  center  of  everything  because  it  speeds  up   when  we  get  emotional   •   Today,  we  know  the  brain  is  the  most  complex  structure  in  the  universe   o   Consistency  of  gelatin   o   Weighs  3  lbs   o   Capable  of  astonishing  feats   •   Biological  psychologists-­‐  researchers  who  study  the  relationship  between  the  nervous   system  and  behavior   o   Also  called  neuroscientists   o   Bridge  multiple  levels  of  analysis  within  psychology   Nerve  Cells:  Communication  Portals   •   Brain’s  most  basic  form  of  communication-­‐  its  cells   o   Known  as  neurons   Neurons:  The  Brain’s  Communicators   •   Neurons-­‐  nerve  cell  specialized  for  communication   •   Brain’s  connect  about  85  billion  neurons   •   More  than  10x  as  many  neurons  to  each  of  our  brains  as  people  on  Earth   •   About  160  trillion  connections  in  the  human  brain   •   Neurons  are  shaped  differently  than  other  cells   o   Cell  body-­‐  aka  Soma   §   Central  region  of  neuron   §   Manufactures  new  cell  components     §   Contains  nucleus   §   Damage  is  fatal   §   Provides  continual  renewal  of  cell  components   o   Dendrites-­‐  branch  like  extensions  for  receiving  information  from  other  neurons   §   Spread  out  to  “listen  in”  on  conversation  from  neighboring  neurons  and   pass  them  on  to  the  cell  body   o   Axons  and  axon  terminals-­‐  transmitters   §   Axon-­‐  portion  of  the  neuron  that  sends  signals   §   Specialized  for  sending  messages  to  other  neurons   §   Synaptic  vesicles-­‐  spherical  sac  containing  neurotransmitters   •   Travel  the  length  of  the  axon   §   When  it  reaches  the  end  of  it’s  journey  to  the  axon  terminal,  it  releases   neurotransmitters-­‐  chemical  messenger  specialized  for  communication   from  neuron  to  neuron   o   Synapses-­‐  space  between  the  two  connecting  neurons  through  which  the   messages  are  transmitted  chemically   §   Synaptic  cleft-­‐  a  gap  into  which  neurotransmitters  are  released  from  the   axon  terminal   •   Surrounded  by  small  patches  of  membrane  on  each  side   •   Neurotransmitters  are  picked  up  quickly  by  the  dendrites  of   nearby  neurons   Glial  Cells   •   Glial  cells-­‐  cell  in  nervous  system  that  plays  a  role  in  the  formation  of  myelin  and  the   blood-­‐brain  barrier,  responds  to  injury,  removes  debris,  and  enhances  learning  and   memory   o   Astrocytes-­‐  interact  closely  with  neurons,  increase  the  reliability  of  their   transmission,  control  blood  flow  in  the  brain,  play  a  vital  role  in  the  development   of  the  embryo   §   Involved  in  thought,  memory  and  the  immune  system   §   Can  find  them  abundantly  in  the  blood-­‐brain  barrier-­‐  protective  shield   that  insulates  the  brain  from  infection  by  bacteria  and  other  intruders   o   Oligodendrocyte-­‐  promotes  new  connections  among  nerve  cells  and  releases   chemicals  to  aid  in  healing   §   Myelin  sheath-­‐  glial  cells  wrapped  around  axons  that  act  as  insulators  of   the  neuron’s  signal   •   Nodes-­‐  numerous  gaps  all  the  way  along  the  axon   o   Help  the  neuron  conduct  electricity  more  efficiently   o   Neural  signal  jumps  from  node  to  node   o   Clear  away  debris;  brain’s  cellular  garbage  disposal   Electrifying  Thought   •   Neurons  respond  to  neurotransmitters  by  generating  electrical  activity   •   Scientists  have  used  electrodes  to  measure  the  potential  difference-­‐  difference  in   electrical  charge  inside  vs.  outside  the  neuron   •   All  electrical  responses  depends  on  an  uneven  distribution  of  charged  particles  across   the  membrane  surrounding  the  neuron   •   Resting  potential-­‐  electrical  charge  difference  (-­‐60  millivolts)  across  the  neuronal   membrane,  when  the  neuron  is  not  being  stimulated  or  inhibited   o   No  neurotransmitters  acting  on  the  neuron   o   Neuron  isn’t  doing  anything     o   More  negative  particles  inside  than  outside  the  neuron   o   Particles  of  both  types  (+  and  -­‐)  are  flowing  into  and  out  of  the  neuron   •   Threshold-­‐  membrane  potential  necessary  to  trigger  an  action  potential   o   Electrical  charge  inside  the  neuron  reaches  a  high  enough  level  relative  to  the   outside   •   Action  potentials-­‐  electrical  impulse  that  travels  down  the  axon  triggering  the  release  of   neurotransmitters   o   Language  of  neurons;  what  they  use  to  communicate   o   Abrupt  waves  of  electric  discharge  triggered  by  a  change  in  charge  inside  the   axon   o   Can  describe  the  neuron  as  “firing”   o   All  or  none  law-­‐  they  either  fire  or  they  don’t   o   Originate  in  the  trigger  zone  near  the  cell  body   o   Continue  all  the  way  down  the  axon  to  the  axon  terminal   o   +  charged  particles  flow  rapidly  into  the  axon,  then  flow  out  just  as  rapidly,   causing  a  spike  in  +  charge,  followed  by  a  decrease  in  charge   o   Inside  ends  with  a  slightly  more  negative  level  than  it’s  original  resting  value   o   Shifts  in  energy  produce  a  release  of  electricity   o   When  electrical  charge  reaches  the  axon  terminal,  it  triggers  the  release  of   neurotransmitters   •   Neurons  can  fire  extremely  rapidly   o   100-­‐1000  times  per  second   o   Energy  travels  at  220  mph   o   Absolute  refractory  period-­‐  time  during  which  another  action  potential  is   impossible;  limits  maximal  firing  rate   §   Follows  each  action  potential   Chemical  Communication:  Neurotransmission   •   Chemical  events  triggered  by  neurotransmitters  cause  communication  among  neurons   •   Receptor  sites-­‐  location  that  uniquely  recognizes  a  neurotransmitter   o   Where  neurotransmitters  bind  after  they  are  released  into  the  synapse   o   Found  on  dendrites  of  neighboring  neurons   o   Lock  and  key  formation   •   Can  be  halted  by  reuptake-­‐  means  of  recycling  neurotransmitters   o   Synaptic  vesicle  reabsorbs  the  neurotransmitter   •   Glutamate  and  GABA:   o   Most  common  neurotransmitters  in  the  CNS   o   Neurons  in  virtually  every  brain  area  use  these  2  chemical  messengers  to   communicate  with  each  other   o   Glutamate-­‐  rapidly  excites  neurons     §   Enhanced  learning  and  memory   §   Elevated-­‐  schizophrenia  and  other  mental  disorders   o   GABA-­‐  inhibits  neurons,  dampening  neural  activity   §   Suppress  overactive  areas  in  the  brain   §   Plays  critical  roles  in  learning,  memory  and  sleep   §   Scientists  want  to  create  drugs  that  target  GABA  to  treat  anxiety,   insomnia,  depression  and  epilepsy   •   Acetylcholine:   o   Plays  roles  in  arousal,  selective  attention,  sleep  and  memory   o   Alzheimer’s-­‐  neurons  containing  acetylcholine  are  destroyed  leading  to  memory   loss   o   Medications  boost  acetylcholine  levels  in  the  brain   o   Neurons  that  connect  to  muscles  release  acetylcholine  to  trigger  movement   •   Monoamines:   o   Norepinephrine,  dopamine  and  serotonin   o   Only  contain  1  amino  acid   o   Dopamine-­‐  critical  role  in  rewarding  experiences  that  occur  when  we  seek  out  or   anticipate  goals   o   Norepinephrine  and  serotonin  activate  or  deactivate  various  parts  of  the  brain   §   Influence  arousal  and  readiness  to  respond  to  stimuli   •   Anandamide:   o   Cells  make  anandamide,  which  binds  to  the  same  receptors  as  THC   o   Plays  roles  in  eating,  motivation,  memory  and  sleep   o   May  explain  why  marijuana  makes  people  hungry  and  sleepy   •   Neuropeptides:   o   Short  strings  of  amino  acids   o   More  narrowly  targeted  in  their  jobs   o   Endorphins-­‐  chemical  in  the  brain  that  plays  a  specialized  role  in  pain  reduction   o   Our  brains  contain  their  own  receptors  for  endogenous  opioids   §   Morphine   o   Human  made  endorphins  hijack  the  endorphin  system,  binding  to  endorphin   receptors  and  mimicking  their  effects   o   Some  neuropeptides  regulate  hunger  and  satiety,  and  others  learning  and   memory   •   Drugs  that  interact  with  neurotransmitter  systems  are  called  psychoactive   o   Affect  mood,  arousal  and  behavior   •   Opiates  function  as  agonists-­‐  increase  receptor  site  activity   o   Codeine  and  morphine   o   Reduce  emotional  response  to  painful  stimuli     o   Mimic  endorphins   •   Antagonists-­‐  decrease  receptor  site  activity   o   Act  as  “fake  neurotransmitters”  fooling  receptors  into  thinking  they  are   dopamine  without  exerting  the  effects  of  the  neurotransmitter   Neural  Plasticity:  How  and  When  the  Brain  Changes   •   Plasticity-­‐  ability  of  the  nervous  system  to  change   •   Few  human  behaviors  are  hardwired   •   Nervous  system  is  continually  changing  as  we  learn   •   Doesn’t  change  enough  followed  by  injury  or  stroke   o   Can  lead  to  paralysis  or  disability   •   Brain  is  most  flexible  during  early  development   •   Network  of  neurons  changes  over  the  course  of  development  in  4  primary  ways   o   Growth  of  dendrites  and  axons   o   Synaptogenesis,  the  formation  of  new  synapses   o   Pruning,  consisting  of  the  death  of  certain  neurons  and  the  retraction  of  axons  to   remove  connections  that  aren’t  useful   o   Myelination,  the  insulation  of  axons  with  the  myelin  sheath   §   Pruning  is  the  most  surprising   §   As  many  as  70%  of  all  neurons  die  off   §   Streamlines  neural  organization   §   Our  brains  can  process  info  more  efficiently  with  fewer  neurons   •   Our  brains  change  as  we  learn   o   Result  from  the  formation  of  new  synapses     §   Generate  increased  connections  and  communication  among  neurons   §   Strengthening  of  existing  synaptic  connections   •   Stronger  and  prolonged  response  from  neighboring  neurons   •   Known  as  potentiation   o   Structural  plasticity-­‐  change  in  the  shape  of  neurons   §   Critical  for  learning   o   Exposure  to  enriched  environments  also  results  in  structural  enhancements  to   dendrites   •   Brain  and  spinal  chord  display  limited  regeneration  after  injury  or  illness   •   Certain  brain  regions  can  take  over  functions  previously  performed  by  others   •   Neurogenesis-­‐  creation  of  new  neurons  in  the  adult  brain   o   Odds  are  high  that  neurogenesis  occurs  in  adult  brains   o   By  triggering  it,  scientists  might  one  day  be  able  to  induce  the  adult  nervous   system  to  heal  itself   o   May  also  pay  a  role  in  learning   •   Stem  cells-­‐  a  cell,  often  originating  in  embryos,  having  the  capacity  to  differentiate  into   a  more  specialized  cell   o   Haven’t  committed  themselves  to  a  specific  function   o   Offer  several  ways  of  treating  diseases  marked  by  neural  degeneration   §   Can  implant  stem  cells  directly  into  the  host’s  nervous  system  and  induce   them  to  grow  and  replace  damaged  cells   §   Genetically  engineer  stem  cells  to  provide  gene  therapy   o   Controversial   §   Advocates  praise  its  potential  for  treating  serious  diseases   §   Opponents  say  research  requires  investigators  to  create  and  extract  lab-­‐ created  balls  of  cells  that  are  4-­‐5  days  old   •   Early  form  of  human  life   The  Brain-­‐Behavior  Network   •   Connections  among  neurons  provide  physiological  bases  of  our  thoughts,  emotions  and   behaviors   •   Central  Nervous  System  (CNS)-­‐  part  of  the  nervous  system  containing  the  brain  and   spinal  cord  that  controls  the  mind  and  behavior   o   Sensory  information   •   Peripheral  Nervous  System  (PNS)-­‐  nerves  in  the  body  that  extend  outside  the  CNS   o   Somatic  nervous  system-­‐  voluntary  behavior   o   Autonomic  nervous  system-­‐  nonvoluntary  functions  of  the  body   §   Automatic   §    Controls  behaviors  that  occur  outside  of  our  conscious  awareness   The  Central  Nervous  System:  The  Command  Center   •   Brain  and  spinal  cord  are  protected  by  meninges-­‐  three  thin  layers  of  membranes   •   Cerebral  ventricles-­‐  pockets  in  the  brain  that  contain  cerebrospinal  fluid  (CSF),  which   provide  the  brain  with  nutrients  and  cushion  against  injury   o   CNS’s  shock  absorber   •   Cerebral  cortex-­‐  outermost  part  of  forebrain,  responsible  for  analyzing  sensory   processing  and  higher  brain  function   o   Outermost  part  of  the  cerebrum   o   Cortex  =  “bark”   §   Surrounds  the  hemispheres  like  bark  on  a  tree   o   Contains  4  regions  called  lobes     §   Each  associated  with  somewhat  different  functions   •   Cerebrum  (forebrain)-­‐  forward  part  of  the  brain  that  allows  advanced  intellectual   abilities   o   Most  highly  developed  area  of  the  human  brain   o   12-­‐20  billion  neurons   o   Consists  of  2  cerebral  hemispheres-­‐  2  halves  of  the  cerebral  cortex,  each  of   which  serve  distinct  yet  highly  integrated  functions   §   Look  alike  but  serve  different  functions   •   Corpus  callosum-­‐  large  band  of  fibers  connecting  the  2  cerebral  hemispheres   o   Means  “colossal  body”  in  Latin   •   4  Lobes:   o   Frontal  lobe-­‐  forward  part  of  the  cerebral  cortex  responsible  for  motor  function   (movement),  language,  memory  and  planning   §   Executive  functioning-­‐  overseeing  and  organizing  most  other  brain   functions   §   Central  sulcus-­‐  deep  groove;  separates  frontal  lobe  from  the  rest  of  the   cortex   §   Motor  cortex-­‐  part  of  the  frontal  lobe  responsible  for  body  movement   •   Lies  next  to  central  sulcus  and  is  part  of  frontal  lobe   •   Each  part  controls  a  specific  part  of  the  body   •   Initiates  movement,  which  is  then  passed  on  to  the  cerebellum  for   finer  details   §   Prefrontal  cortex-­‐  part  of  the  frontal  lobe  responsible  for  thinking,   planning  and  language   •   Broca’s  area-­‐  language  area  in  the  prefrontal  cortex  that  helps  to   control  speech  production   o   Formation  of  speech   o   Damage  =  can’t  speak   •   Also  contributes  to  mood,  personality  and  self-­‐awareness   o   Parietal  lobe-­‐  upper  middle  part  of  the  cerebral  cortex  lying  behind  the  frontal   lobe  that  is  specialized  for  touch  and  perception   §   Back  region  is  the  primary  sensory  cortex   •   Sensitive  to  touch,  pressure,  pain  and  temperature   §   Helps  us  track  objects  locations,  shapes  and  orientations   §   Helps  us  process  others’  actions  and  represent  numbers   §   Relays  visual  and  touch  info  to  the  motor  cortex     §   Damage  results  in  trouble  making  sense  of  their  immediate  surroundings   •   Neglect  of  the  opposite  side  of  the  body  where  the  damage   happened   o   Temporal  lobe-­‐  lower  part  of  the  cerebral  cortex  that  plays  roles  in  hearing,   understanding  language  and  memory   §   Separated  from  the  rest  of  the  cortex  by  the  lateral  fissure   §   Top  contains  auditory  cortex-­‐  devoted  to  hearing   §   Wernicke’s  area-­‐  part  of  the  temporal  lobe  involved  in  understanding   speech   •   Damage  results  in  difficulties  understanding  speech   •   Damaged  patients  speak  gibberish   §   Lower  part  is  critical  for  storing  memories   o   Occipital  lobe-­‐  back  part  of  the  cerebral  cortex  specialized  for  vision   §   Contains  visual  cortex   §   We  have  more  of  our  brain  dedicated  to  the  visual  cortex  because  we   rely  strongly  on  visual  imputs   •   When  info  from  the  outside  world  is  transmitted  by  a  specific  sense,  it  reaches  our   primary  sensory  cortex-­‐  regions  of  the  cerebral  cortex  that  initially  process  info  from  the   senses   •   It’s  then  passed  to  the  association  cortex-­‐  regions  of  the  cerebral  cortex  that  integrate   simpler  functions  to  perform  more  complex  functions   o   Most  of  the  cerebrum  (about  ¾)  consists  of  association  cortex   o   Much  of  what  makes  us  smart  relies  on  integrating  (associating)  info  across   different  brain  areas   o   Association  cortex  synthesizes  info  to  perform  more  complex  functions   o   Overall  organization  is  hierarchical     §   Processes  become  increasingly  complex  as  info  passes  up  the  network   •   Basal  ganglia-­‐  structures  in  the  forebrain  that  help  to  control  movement   o   Buried  deep  in  the  cortex  and  help  control  movement   o   Damage  =  Parkinson’s  disease   o   Sensory  info  is  transmitted  to  the  basal  ganglia  after  the  primary  and  association   cortexes   §   Calculate  a  course  of  action  and  transmit  it  to  the  motor  cortex   o   Allows  us  to  perform  movements  to  obtain  rewards   •   Limbic  system-­‐  emotional  center  of  brain  that  also  plays  roles  in  smell,  motivation  and   memory   o   Processes  info  about  internal  states   o   Thalamus-­‐  gateway  from  the  sense  organs  to  the  primary  sensory  cortex   §   Connects  many  areas  which  connect  to  a  specific  region  of  the  cerebral   cortex   §   Sensory  relay  station   o   Hypothalamus-­‐  part  of  the  brain  responsible  for  maintaining  a  constant  internal   state   §   Means  “below  the  thalamus”   §   Different  areas  play  various  roles  in  emotion  and  motivation   §   Helps  regulate  hunger,  thirst,  sexual  motivation  and  other  emotional   behaviors   §   Assists  with  controlling  body  temp.   o   Amygdala-­‐  part  of  the  limbic  system  that  plays  key  roles  in  fear,  excitement  and   arousal   §   Plays  key  role  in  fear  conditioning   o   Hippocampus-­‐  part  of  the  brain  that  plays  a  role  in  spatial  memory   §   Spatial  memory-­‐  memory  of  a  physical  layout  of  things  in  our   environment   §   Make  a  mental  map  =  using  out  hippocampus   §   Damage  =  problems  forming  new  memories   •   Leaves  old  memories  intact     •   Cerebellum-­‐  brain  structure  responsible  for  our  sense  of  balance   o   Latin  for  “little  brain”   o   Mini  version  of  the  cortex   o   Enables  us  to  coordinate  movement  and  learn  motor  skills   §   Performs  actions  received  by  motor  cortex   o   Contributes  to  executive,  memory,  spatial  and  linguistic  abilities   o   Damage  =  balance  problems   •   Brain  stem-­‐  part  of  the  brain  between  the  spinal  cord  and  cerebral  cortex  that  contains   the  midbrain,  pons  and  medulla   o   Performs  basic  bodily  functions  that  keep  us  alive   o   Midbrain-­‐  part  of  the  brain  stem  that  contributes  to  movement,  tracking  of   visual  stimuli  and  reflexes  triggered  by  sound   o   Reticular  activating  system  (RAS)-­‐  brain  area  that  plays  a  key  role  in  arousal   §   Connects  forebrain  with  cerebral  cortex   §   Damage  =  COMA   §   Pathways  activate  the  cortex  by  jacking  up  the  signal-­‐to-­‐noise  ratio   among  neurons  in  the  brain   o   Hindbrain-­‐  region  below  the  midbrain  that  contains  the  cerebellum,  pons  and   medulla   o   Pons-­‐  part  of  the  brain  stem  that  connects  the  cortex  with  the  cerebellum   o   Medulla-­‐  part  of  the  brain  stem  that  connects  the  cortex  with  the  cerebellum   §   Regulates  breathing,  heartbeat  and  other  vital  functions   §   Controls  nausea  and  vomiting   §   Damage  =  brain  death   •   Irreversible  coma   •   Totally  unaware  of  surroundings  and  unresponsive   •   No  signs  of  spontaneous  movement,  respiration  or  reflex  activity   •   Often  confused  with  persistent  vegetative  state  (cortical  death)   o   Spinal  cord-­‐  thick  bundle  of  nerves  that  conveys  signals  between  the  brain  and   body   §   Extends  from  brain  stem,  runs  down  middle  of  our  backs,  conveying  info   between  the  brain  and  the  rest  of  the  body   §   Nerves  extend  from  neurons  to  the  body   •   Travel  2  directions   •   Sensory  nerves-­‐  carry  sensory  info  from  the  body  to  the  brain   •   Motor  nerves-­‐  carry  motor  commands  from  the  brain  to  the  body   §   Interneurons-­‐  neuron  that  sends  messages  to  other  neurons  nearby   •   Connect  sensory  nerves  with  motor  nerves  within  the  spinal  cord   without  having  to  report  to  the  brain   •   Reflexes-­‐  automatic  motor  response  to  a  sensory  stimulus   The  Peripheral  Nervous  System   •   Consist  of  nerves  that  extend  outside  of  the  CNS   •   Somatic  nervous  system-­‐  part  of  the  nervous  system  that  conveys  info  between  the  CNS   and  the  body,  controlling  and  coordinating  voluntary  movement   o   Carries  info  to  muscles   •   Autonomic  nervous  system-­‐  part  of  the  nervous  system  controlling  the  involuntary   actions  of  our  internal  organs  and  glands,  which  (along  with  the  limbic  system)   participates  in  emotion  regulation   o   Sympathetic  nervous  system-­‐  division  of  the  autonomic  nervous  system  engaged   during  a  crisis  or  after  actions  requiring  fight  or  flight   §   Active  during  emotional  arousal,  especially  crisis   §   Fight  or  flight-­‐  increased  heart  rate,  respiration  and  perspiration   o   Parasympathetic  nervous  system-­‐  division  of  the  autonomic  nervous  system  that   controls  rest  and  digestion   §   Kicks  into  gear  when  there’s  no  threat  on  our  mental  radar  screens   The  Endocrine  System   •   Endocrine  system-­‐  system  of  glands  and  hormones  that  controls  secretion  of  blood-­‐ borne  chemical  messengers   •   Hormones-­‐  chemical  released  into  the  bloodstream  that  influences  particular  organs   and  glands   o   Much  slower  than  neurotransmitters  because  they’re  carried  through  the   bloodstream   o   Outlast  neurotransmitters  in  their  effects   Pituitary  Gland  and  Pituitary  Hormones   •   Pituitary  gland-­‐  master  gland  that,  under  the  control  of  the  hypothalamus,  directs  the   other  glands  of  the  body   •   Once  called  “master  gland”   •   Releases  a  variety  of  hormones  that  serve  numerous  functions   o   Physical  growth,  controlling  blood  pressure,  determining  how  much  water  we   retain  in  our  kidneys   •   Oxytocin-­‐  responsible  for  several  reproductive  functions   o   Stretching  the  cervix  and  vagina  during  birth   o   Aiding  milk  flow  in  nursing  mothers   o   Plays  essential  roles  in  maternal  and  romantic  love   o   “love  molecule”   o   Influences  how  much  we  trust  each  other   The  Adrenal  Glands  and  Adrenaline   •   Adrenal  glands-­‐  tissue  located  on  top  of  the  kidneys  that  releases  adrenaline  and   cortisol  during  states  of  emotional  arousal   •   Emergency  centers  of  the  body   •   Adrenaline-­‐  boosts  energy  production  in  muscle  cells,  while  conserving  as  much  energy   as  possible   o   Contraction  of  our  heart  muscle  and  constriction  of  our  blood  vessels  to  provide   more  blood  to  the  body   o   Opening  the  bronchioles  of  the  lungs  to  allow  inhalation  of  more  air   o   Breakdown  of  fatty  acids,  providing  us  with  more  fuel   o   Breakdown  of  glycogen  into  glucose  to  energize  our  muscles   o   Opening  the  pupils  of  our  eyes  to  enable  better  sight  during  emergencies   o   Inhibits  gastrointestinal  secretions   o   Allows  people  to  perform  amazing  feats  in  crisis  situations   §   Constrained  by  people’s  physical  limitations   o   Pleasurable  and  exciting  activities  also  produce  adrenaline  rushes   •   Cortisol-­‐  increases  in  response  to  physical  and  psychological  stressors   o   Anxiety  disorders  =  elevated  levels  of  cortisol   o   Conduct  problems  =  low  levels  of  cortisol   o   Regulates  blood  pressure  and  cardiovascular  function   o   Regulates  body’s  use  of  proteins,  carbs  and  fats   o   Regulates  body  weight   Sexual  Reproductive  Glands  and  Sex  Hormones   •   Testes  in  males   •   Ovaries  in  females   •   Testosterone-­‐  male  sex  hormone;  made  by  testes   •   Estrogen-­‐  female  sex  hormone;  made  by  ovaries   •   Both  sexes  manufacture  some  amount  of  sex  hormone  associated  with  the  opposite  sex   o   Women  produce  1/20  the  amount  of  testosterone  of  males   o   Ovaries  and  adrenal  glands  make  testosterone   o   Testes  manufacture  low  levels  of  estrogen   Mapping  the  Mind:  The  Brain  in  Action   •   We  know  more  about  the  brain  today  than  we  did  200  or  even  20  years  ago  because  of   psychologists  and  related  scientists  who’ve  developed  many  methods  to  explore  the   brain  and  its  functions   A  Tour  of  Brain-­‐Mapping  Methods   •   Phrenology-­‐  one  of  the  first  attempts  to  map  the  brain   o   Phrenologists  assessed  bumps  on  the  head  and  attributed  various  personality   and  intellectual  characteristics   o   Assumed  enlargements  corresponded  to  brain  enlargements  linked  to   psychological  capacities   o   Founder  of  phrenology-­‐  Franz  Joseph  Gall   o   Based  hypotheses  about  supposed  associations  between  brain  areas  and   personality  traits  on  anecdotal  observations   o   Researchers  discovered  that  patients  with  damage  to  specific  brain  areas  didn’t   experience  the  kinds  of  psychological  deficits  the  phrenologists  predicted   •   New  methods  arose  to  full  the  void  left  by  phrenology   o   Studying  psychological  functioning  following  damage  to  specific  brain  regions   •   Created  lesions  in  animals   •   Neuropsychologists  rely  on  sophisticated  psychological  tests     o   Tests  measure  reasoning,  attention,  verbal  and  spatial  ability   o   Require  specialized  training  to  administer,  score  and  interpret   o   Lab,  computerized  and  paper-­‐and-­‐pencil  measures  assess  patients’  cognitive   strengths  and  weaknesses   •   Researchers  discovered  that  stimulating  parts  of  the  human  motor  cortex  produced   specific  movements   o   Led  to  hypothesis  that  neurons  use  electrical  activity  to  send  info   •   Electroencephalograph  (EEG)-­‐  recording  of  brain’s  electrical  activity  at  the  surface  of  the   skull   o   Patterns  and  sequences  allow  scientists  to  infer  whether  a  person  is  awake  or   asleep,  dreaming  or  not  and  to  tell  which  regions  are  active  during  specific  tasks   o   Researchers  record  electrical  activity  from  multiple  electrodes  placed  on  the   scalp’s  surface   o   Non-­‐invasive   o   Tell  us  little  about  what  is  happening  inside  the  neurons   •   Computed  tomography  (CT)-­‐  a  scanning  technique  using  multiple  X-­‐rays  to  construct  3-­‐D   images   o   Displays  far  more  detail  than  an  X-­‐ray   •   Magnetic  resonance  imaging  (MRI)-­‐  technique  that  uses  magnetic  fields  to  indirectly   visualize  brain  structure   o   Measures  the  release  of  energy  from  water  in  biological  tissues  following   exposure  to  a  magnetic  field   o   Superior  to  CT  scans  for  detecting  soft  tissues   §   I.e.  brain  tumors   •   Positron  emission  tomography  (PET)-­‐  imaging  technique  that  measures  consumption  of   glucose-­‐like  molecules,  yielding  a  picture  of  neural  activity  in  different  regions  of  the   brain   o   Functional  imaging  technique   o   Measures  changes  in  brain’s  activity  in  response  to  stimuli   o   Basic  principle:  neurons  increase  their  intake  of  glucose  when  they’re  active   o   PET  requires  the  injection  of  radioactive  glucose-­‐like  molecules  into  patients   §   Short  lived  so  they  do  little  to  no  harm   o   Scanner  measures  where  in  the  brain  most  of  the  glucose-­‐like  molecules  are   gobbled  up   •   Functional  MRI  (fMRI)-­‐  technique  that  uses  magnetic  fields  to  visualize  brain  activity   using  changes  in  blood  oxygen  levels   o   Indirect  indicator  of  neural  activity   o   Provides  detailed  images  of  activity  in  small  brain  regions  over  brief  time   intervals   o   Extremely  sensitive  to  motion   •   Transcranial  magnetic  stimulation  (TMS)-­‐  applies  strong  and  quickly  changing  magnetic   fields  to  the  skull  that  can  either  enhance  or  interrupt  brain  function   o   Offers  useful  insights  about  which  brain  areas  are  involved  in  different   psychological  processes   o   Only  non-­‐invasive  brain  imaging  technique  that  allows  us  to  infer  causation   •   Magnetoencephalography  (MEG)-­‐  technique  that  measures  brain  activity  by  detecting   tiny  magnetic  fields  generated  by  the  brain   o   Reveals  patterns  of  magnetic  fields  on  the  skull’s  surface   o   Measures  brain  changes  millisecond  by  millisecond   •   Extremely  easy  to  misinterpret  brain  scans   How  Much  of  Our  Brain  Do  We  Use?   •   William  James  wrote  that  most  people  fulfill  only  a  small  %  of  their  intellectual  potential   •   Some  people  misunderstood  it  to  mean  we  only  use  10%  of  our  brain   Which  Parts  of  Our  Brain  Do  We  Use  for  What?   •   Localization  of  function-­‐  brain  areas  that  are  active  during  a  specific  psychological  task   over  and  above  a  baseline  rate  of  activity   Which  Side  of  Our  Brain  Do  We  Use  for  What?   •   Many  capacities  rely  on  one  cerebral  hemisphere  more  than  the  other   •   Lateralization-­‐  cognitive  function  that  relies  more  on  one  side  of  the  brain  than  the   other   •   Roger  Sperry  proved  that  the  2  hemispheres  serve  different  functions   •   Split-­‐brain  surgery-­‐  procedure  that  involves  severing  the  corpus  callosum  to  reduce  the   spread  of  epileptic  seizures   o   Patients  experience  a  bizarre  fragmenting  of  mental  functions  that  most  of  us   normally  experience  as  integrated   o   Experience  difficulties  integrating  info  presented  to  separate  hemispheres   •   Possible  to  only  live  with  half  a  brain   Nature  and  Nurture:  Did  Your  Genes  –  or  Parents  –  Make  You  Do  It?   •   Our  nervous  system  is  shaped  by  both  our  genes  (nature)  and  our  environment   (nurture)   How  We  Come  to  Be  Who  We  Are   •   Chromosomes-­‐  slender  thread  inside  a  cell’s  nucleus  that  carries  genes   •   Genes-­‐  genetic  material,  composed  of  deoxyribonucleic  acid  (DNA)   •   Genotype-­‐  our  genetic  makeup   •   Phenotype-­‐  our  observable  traits   o   Shaped  by  environmental  factors   •   Can’t  easily  infer  people’s  genotypes  by  observing  their  phenotypes   •   Some  genes  are  dominant-­‐  gene  that  masks  other  genes’  effects   •   Recessive-­‐  gene  that  is  expressed  only  in  the  absence  of  a  dominant  gene   •   On  the  Origin  of  Species  by  Charles  Darwin  introduced  his  theory  of  evolution  by  natural   selection   o   Populations  of  organisms  change  gradually  over  time   o   Some  organisms  possess  adaptations  that  make  them  better  suited  to  their   environments   o   They  survive  and  reproduce  at  higher  rates  than  the  other  organisms   o   These  are  more  likely  than  others  to  pass  on  their  genes  to  future  generations   o   Fitness-­‐  organisms’  capacity  to  pass  on  their  genes   •   Proportional  to  our  body  size,  we’re  the  biggest  brained  animals   •   Relative  brain  size  is  associated  with  behaviors  we  typically  regard  as  intelligent   o   Big-­‐brained  animals  tend  to  have  large  and  complex  social  networks   Behavioral  Genetics:  How  We  Study  Heritability   •   Examine  the  influence  of  nature  and  nurture  on  psychological  traits   •   Heritability-­‐  percentage  of  variability  in  a  trait  across  individuals  that  is  due  to  genes   o   Height  is  highly  heritable;  due  to  different  genes   o   Heritability  of  religion  is  low;  due  to  environmental  factors   •   Reaction  range-­‐  extent  to  which  genes  set  limits  on  how  much  a  trait  can  change  in   response  to  new  environments   •   Family  studies-­‐  analysis  of  how  characteristics  run  in  intact  families   o   Useful  in  estimating  the  risk  of  a  disorder  among  the  relatives  of  people  afflicted   with  that  disorder   o   Drawback-­‐  relatives  share  a  similar  environment  as  well  as  similar  genetic   material   o   Don’t  allow  us  to  disentangle  the  effects  of  nature  from  nurture   •   Twin  studies-­‐  analysis  of  how  traits  differ  in  identical  versus  fraternal  twins   o   Identical  twins  are  more  similar  genetically  than  are  fraternal  twins   o   If  identical  twins  are  more  alike  on  psychological  characteristics,  then  we  can   infer  that  this  characteristic  is  genetically  influenced   §   Environmental  influences  must  be  the  same  for  both  sets  of  twins   •   Adoption  studies-­‐  analysis  of  how  traits  vary  in  individuals  raised  apart  from  their   biological  relatives   o   Examine  the  extent  to  which  children  adopted  into  new  homes  resemble  their   adoptive  parents  as  opposed  to  their  biological  parents   o   If  they  resemble  their  biological  parents,  its  genetically  influenced   o   Selective  placement-­‐  placing  children  in  homes  similar  to  those  of  their  biological   parents   o   Investigators  can  mistakenly  interpret  the  similarity  between  adopted  children   and  their  biological  parents  as  genetic        


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