Management Notes for the Week of 4/4
Management Notes for the Week of 4/4 MGMT 300
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric LaPree on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 300 at University of North Dakota taught by Nikolaus Butz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
Notes for 4/5 Management 300 Key Terms: Group – Two or more freely acting individuals who share collective norms, collective goals ha a common identity. Team – Small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Key Terms from 4/7 Cooperating – A process in which efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective. Cooperating – A process in which efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective. Cohesiveness Tendency for a group to stick together. Team culture The belief that more can get done in a group than individually. Group – Two or more freely acting individuals who share collective norms, collective goals ha a common identity. Formal group – established to do something productive for the organizations Members are assigned because of their skills Headed by a leader Permanent or temporary Informal group – formed be people seeking friendship Has no officially appointed leader, although a leader may emerge Can advance or undercut formal groups Team – Small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Types of teams: Continuous improvement team – Volunteers of workers and supervisors who meet intermittently to discuss workplace and qualityrelated problems formerly called quality circle Crossfunctional team – Members composed of people from different departments such as sales and production, pursuing a common objective. Problemsolving team – Knowledgeable workers who meet as a temporary team to solve a specific problem and then disband. Selfmanaged team – Workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a work unit, have no direct supervisor, and do their own daytoday supervision Topmanagement team – Members interact by computer network to collaborate on projects Virtual team – Members interact by computer network to collaborate on projects Work team – Members engage in collective in collective work requiring coordinated effort; purpose of team is advice, production, project, or action 4 purposes of work teams 1. Advice teams – Created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions 2. Production teams – Responsible for performing daytoday operations 3. Project teams – Work do creative problem solving, often by applying the specialized knowledge of members 4. Action teams – Work to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and/or a high degree of coordination Virtual teams 50foot rule – The idea that if someone is more than 50 feet apart they are not likely to collaborate Virtual teams – groups of people who use information technology to collaborate across space, time, and organizational boundaries Tips for managing virtual teams: Take baby steps and manager by results State expectations Write it down Establish communication boundaries Be aware of cultural differences Meet regularly Selfmanaged teams – Groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for task domains and perform work that was previously the responsibility of the manager Traditional clearcut distinction between manager and managed is blurred Advantages: selfmanaged teams have a positive effect on productivity and attitudes responsibility and control Disadvantage: no effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment Continuous improvement teams: small groups of volunteers or workers and supervisors who need intermittently to discuss workplace and quality related problems Previously known as quality circles Forerunner of selfmanaged teams Ways to empower selfmanaged teams 1. Managers should make team members accountable for their work, allow them to set their own team goals, and let them solve their own workrelated problems 2. The team should work with a whole product or service (not just a part), assign jobs and tasks to its members, develop its own quality standards and measurement techniques, and handle its own problems with internal and external customers 3. Team members are crosstrained on jobs within their and other teams; do their own hiring, training, and firing; do their own evaluations of each other and are paid as a team 4. The team has access to important information and resources inside and outside the organization, is allowed to communicate with and draw support from other teams and departments, and sets its own rules and policies 5 stages of group and team development 1. Forming – getting oriented and getting acquainted 2. Storming – individual personalities and roles emerge 3. Norming – conflicts resolved, relationships develop, unity emerges 4. Performing – solving problems and completing the assigned task 5. Adjourning – prepare for disbandment Forming – the process of getting oriented and getting acquainted Stage characteristics High degree of uncertainty as members try to break the ice Members try to figure out what the group’s goals are Low mutual trust Leader functions: \ Should allow time for people to become acquainted and socialize Storming (time of testing) – the emergence of individual personalities and roles conflicts within the group Stage characteristics: Individuals test the leader’s policies and assumptions as they try to determine how they fit in the power structure of the group Subgroups can take shape with forms of rebellion and procrastination In severe cases power politics may erupt into an open rebellion Can be short or painfully lo9ng based on various factors: Degree of goal clarity among the group’s members The level of commitment that members feel towards the group The maturity of the members Leader functions: leaders should encourage members to suggest ideas, voice disagreements, and work through their conflicts about tasks and goals Norming – conflicts are resolved, close relationship develop and unity and harmony emerge Stage characteristics: lingering question of authority from stage 2 are resolved though nonemotional, matteroffact group discussions Group evolves into a team The team sets guidelines related to what members will do how they will do it The team considers norms for attendance, punctuality, missing work, mutual respect etc. Leader functions: leaders should emphasize unity and help identify team goals and values Performing – members concentrate on solving problems and completing the assigned tasks Stage characteristics: Open and trusting environment Hierarchy is of little importance Member adopt an attitude of flexibility Leader functions: leaders should allow members the empowerment they need to work on tasks Adjourning – members prepare for disbandment Characteristics: having worked so hard to get along and accomplish the selected goals, many members feel a compelling sense of loss Leader functions: leaders can help ease the transition by rituals celebrating “the end” and “new beginnings” Notes for 4/7 9 considerations for building a group into an effective team 1. Cooperation 2. Trust 3. Cohesiveness 4. Performance goals and feedback 5. Motivation through mutual accountability 6. Size 7. Roles 8. Norms 9. Groupthink Cooperating – A process in which efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective. Trust – Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors Trust operates on giveandtake basis Credibility – How believable you are based on your past acts of integrity and followthrough on your promises How trust is developed: Common values: do you share the same values and beliefs? Aligned interests Do our interests coincide rather than conflict? Benevolence – does the person care about my welfare? Competence: is the person capable of delivering on what they say? Cohesiveness Tendency for a group to stick together. Promoting team cohesiveness – provide employees opportunities for facetoface exchanges at work, let individuals pick their own teammates, host offthejob social events, keep teams small Performance goals and feedback Teams need a collective purpose 2 key features of performance goals 1. Specific 2. Measurable Motivation through mutual accountability Team culture the belief that more can get done in a group than individually. Adherence to performance goals Work is meaningful Members do feel that their efforts matter Members do not feel exploited Mutual accountability – everyone is responsible for everyone else’s work as well as their own People have to answer to each other not just the supervisor Size Determined by the team’s purpose Affects team member’s commitment and performance Small vs. large teams (56 per team is considered the golden spot where productivity is highest) Small teams (29 people) Advantages Better interaction Better morale Disadvantages Fewer resources Possibly less innovation Unfair work distribution Large groups (1016) Advantages More resources Division of labor Disadvantages Less interaction Lower morale Social loafers (low/high achievers) or sliders (high achievers that “check out” Roles: How team members are expected to behave Roles: A socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a specific position A team member’s role is to play a part in helping the team reach its goals Members develop their roles based on the expectations of 3 key agents 1. The team 2. The organization 3. Themselves 2 types of team roles 1. Task role – keeps the team on track and get the work done 2. Maintenance role – focuses on team harmony and relationship building Task roles (taskoriented roles) – consists of behaviors that concentrate on getting the team’s tasks done Coordinators – Pulls together ideas and suggestions from the team’s members Orienteers – Keeps the team headed towards its stated goals Initiators – Suggests new goals or ideas Energizers – Prod people to move along or accomplish more Maintenance roles (relationshiporiented roles) – Consist of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among team members Encourages – foster group unity and sense of collective purpose by praising various view points Standard setters – Evaluate the quality of group processes Harmonizers – mediate conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromisers – help resolve conflict by means of meeting others halfway Norms – General guidelines (more broad than roles) that most group or team members follow Establish boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior Can be stated explicitly but typically are unwritten and seldom discussed openly Why are they enforced? To help the group survive To clarify role expectations To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations To emphasize the group’s important values and identity Groupthink – a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives Friendly, tightlyknit groups become unable to think outside the box Striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action Symptoms of groupthink 1. Invulnerability – the illusion that nothing can go wrong 2. Inherent morality – assured of the rightness of the groups actions 3. Stereotyping of opposition – underestimating opponents 4. Rationalization – cognitive difficulty arguing past successes 5. Selfcensorship – protect the assumptions of the group by from critical question 6. Illusion of unanimity – silence by a member is interpreted to mean consent 7. Peer pressure – other members of the group questioning loyalty of those who dissent 8. Mindguards – selfappointed protectors against adverse information Results Suboptimal team performance Reduction in alternative ideas Limiting of other information Lack of contingency planning Preventing groupthink Allow criticism o Allow for debate o Encourage members to be critical evaluators of other’s ideas o Encourage members to rethink their own ideas to check for flaws Allow other perspective o Draw an outside perspective o Pose the problem to different groups o Appoint a devil’s advocate (but switch up the advocate from time to time) Conflict – process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party Fueled by stress Deadlines Workloads Productivity demands Forms of conflict Violence More subtle / nonviolent Too much or too little conflict negatively impacts performance Conflict can occur between many different parties Negative conflict – conflict that hinders the organizations performance or threatens its interest Constructive conflict – conflict that benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interests Indolence – (too little conflict) leads to apathy, lack of creativity, indecision, resistance to change, groupthink Moderate – induce creativity, improve performance Warfare – lack of teamwork, turns workplace into an aggressive place 3 kinds of conflicts 1. Personality conflict – interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement, or differing styles a. Personality clashes b. Competition for scarce resources c. Time pressure d. Communication 2. Intergroup conflicts a. Inconsistent goals or reward systems b. Ambiguous jurisdiction c. Status differences 3. Multicultural conflicts a. Differing assumptions or ways of behaving 4 devices to stimulate constructive conflict 1. Spur competition among employees 2. Change the organization’s culture and procedures 3. Bring in outsiders for new perspective 4. Use programmed conflict Programmed conflict Devil’s advocate – process of assigning someone to play the role of critic to voice possible objections to a proposal and thereby generate critical thinking and reality testing Dialectic method – process of having two people or groups play opposing roles in a debate in order to text if both sides of a proposal are workable Five conflicthandling styles 1. Avoiding 2. Accommodating 3. Forcing 4. Compromising 5. collaborating
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