Popular in Health Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 367 at Grand Valley State University taught by Amanda Dillard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Health Psychology Week 4 Attitudes o Many functions of attitudes: organization & structure, self-expression, grain approval o Sometimes the affective part of an attitude may be stronger than the cognitive part Ex) how you feel vs traits/characteristics of a snake & vacuum o Relationship between attitudes & behavior Landmark study (Corey, 1937) College students’ attitudes toward cheating had no association with their cheating behavior Review by Wicker (1969) 45 studies examining association between attitude & actual behavior; found little/no association *social psych needs to abandon “attitude predicts behavior” because there’s no association between them o When will attitudes predict behavior? The attitude is salient (person is made aware of their attitude based on how they’ve been behaving) Other influences are minimal, particularly social The attitude is specific to the behavior or action Ex) ask “how do you feel about jogging?” to see if someone jogs Health belief model o Health is determined by two factors Perceived health threat Vulnerability/perceived susceptibility/perceived risk Severity Belief doing behavior can effectively reduce risk Belief that behavior itself can reduce threat Belief that benefits of doing behavior outweigh costs Support for what behaviors? Cancer screening, HIV testing Most studied construct? Specific beliefs about vulnerability o View perceived risk as central BUT… Interventions show only moderate success Some correlational studies show moderate associations at best o Criticism: Health belief model has focused on perceived risk measures that are too cognitive; affect related to risk has been ignored Cited as rationale for sometimes weak association between perceived risk & health behavior Taking into account affect would improve prediction o Typical measures: Not at all likely to extremely likely Extremely low chance to extremely high chance 0% (no chance of happening) to 100% (guaranteed to happen) o Perceived risk isn’t just about beliefs or probabilities, but also feelings Example: What is an event for which you may have a high risk, but you don’t feel vulnerable? o Car accidents An event for which you have a low risk, but feel vulnerable? o Airplane crash, shark attack Theory of Planned Behavior o Best way to predict behavior is INTENTIONS Intentions shaped by: Attitude toward behavior beliefs & evaluations of likely outcomes Subjective norms how do others view the behavior? Perceived behavioral control expectation that we can successfully perform behavior (self-efficacy) o Lots of experimental support Predicts taking medication, exercise, eating behavior, condom use, cancer screening & more Compared to health behavior model? More time & support o Meta-analyses find 40-50% of variance in intentions is explained by the 3 factors & intentions then explains 38% of behavior o When intentions are specific, predictive power is improved Implementation intentions- how you’ll do the behavior, where you’ll do the behavior, and when you’ll do the behavior o Implementation intentions intervention 114 Michigan patients randomly assigned to intervention or control all patients had a heart attack & did 8 weeks of a rehabilitation program before participating in the study Intervention: learned about implementation intentions & formed them o Ex) “I plan to exercise X times per week, I plan to exercise at a certain time of day between X & X, I plan to do such exercises as X and where I will exercise o Criticism: Risky behaviors are typically NOT planned but instead are reaction to a social situation What is behavior willingness? “openness to risk opportunity” How willing/open someone is to a behavior tends to predict a little bit better Ex) adolescents don’t intend to engage in smoking or unsafe sex or drinking usually happen spontaneously o Research shows behavioral willingness is associated with behavior intentions but it also predicts additional variance in behavior (2-10%) Especially for who? Young people/adolescents Risky behaviors occur when adolescents are put in a situation What is the common pattern observed? Behavior intention is low but behavior willingness is high o Relationship with experience? Little experience= more behavior willingness Little experience predicts behavior better o Behaviors that may be opportunistic throughout life: drunk driving, smoking Cognitive Perspectives o Cognitive theories focus on how behavior has been learned and reinforced Cognitive behavior therapy- determine & change the conditions that elicit, maintain, and reinforce a behavior How is it different from attitudinal approach? More individualize/personalize Done with a therapist Use steps of monitoring o Ex) having trouble losing weight have them keep diary of what they eat & then come up with techniques that could work Following monitoring of behavior, various techniques would be implements Examples of techniques Cognitive restructuring o Ex) thought repression, counter-arguing Role modeling o Therapist models behaviors that client has to enact & practice then do it on own in daily life o Associative learning principles are inherent in cognitive behavior theories Example: operant conditioning Self-reinforcement: systematically rewarding oneself to increase a particular behavior o Positive vs negative reinforcement Positive- reward with something desirable after a behavior occurs Negative- removing something negative from the situation after the behavior occurs o Differs from punishment? Reinforcement is used to increase a behavior Punishment is used to decrease a behavior Not very successful Example: classical conditioning First methods of health behavior change were based on this type of learning *Pavlov’s dog* Antabuse- medicine for alcoholics o Takes the medicine & when they drink one sip of alcohol they get REALLY sick should develop strong aversion because of the sick feeling o *need to use for a long time Social Cognitive Theory o How do individuals learn behavior? Through observations of others in their environment Learning is especially likely to occur when the person is similar or is the behavior is unfamiliar o “Vicarious Learning” Learning through others/by watching others Only happens when it increases self-efficacy Popular program that is based heavily on SCT? Alcoholics Anonymous How is this integrated into intervention? Showing someone they can overcome an obstacle Transtheoretical Model o Also known as “TTM” Originally developed to treat addiction-based behaviors People go through distinct stages which are associated with different processes Effectiveness of treatment/intervention will depend on match (which stage person is in) o 5 stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance Precontemplation: Are aware that they have a problem; change may be due to pressure from others; no intention of changing behavior “Are seriously intending to change that problem behavior in the near future, within the next 6 months? o Would answer no Contemplation: Seriously considering change, but haven’t decided to take action; may be “stuck” Process: evaluation of pros & cons Are you seriously intending to change the problem behavior in the near future, within the next 6 months? o Would answer yes Preparation: Intending to take action in the next month; have made a failed attempt of quitting; have made small behavioral changes; make specific plans for action Are you seriously intending to change in the next month? o Would answer yes Action: Visible changes to behavior; could be significant reduction or quit; changes have lasted 1 day to 6 months I am really working hard to change o Would strongly agree with this statement Not permanent change relapse is a high possibility Maintenance: Actively working to prevent relapse; free of behavior for 6 months; indefinites stage (still chance for relapse, still need to work hard to maintain behavior change) o Spiral pattern of change- most people are NOT successful on first cycle; smokers in maintenance report being in action stage average 3-4 times; relapse is the rule rather than exception Where do they go when they relapse? In general, the more cycling through the stages, the greater the chance of eventual success people learn to overcome barriers as they relapse & recycle stages
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