New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Shelby Nesbitt

PSYCH 367 PSY 367

Shelby Nesbitt
GPA 3.26

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

week 4 notes
Health Psychology
Amanda Dillard
Class Notes
Health psychology
25 ?




Popular in Health Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 367 at Grand Valley State University taught by Amanda Dillard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.


Reviews for PSYCH 367


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/16
Health Psychology Week 4  Attitudes o Many functions of attitudes: organization & structure, self-expression, grain approval o Sometimes the affective part of an attitude may be stronger than the cognitive part  Ex) how you feel vs traits/characteristics of a snake & vacuum o Relationship between attitudes & behavior  Landmark study (Corey, 1937)  College students’ attitudes toward cheating had no association with their cheating behavior  Review by Wicker (1969)  45 studies examining association between attitude & actual behavior; found little/no association  *social psych needs to abandon “attitude predicts behavior” because there’s no association between them o When will attitudes predict behavior?  The attitude is salient (person is made aware of their attitude based on how they’ve been behaving)  Other influences are minimal, particularly social  The attitude is specific to the behavior or action  Ex) ask “how do you feel about jogging?” to see if someone jogs  Health belief model o Health is determined by two factors  Perceived health threat  Vulnerability/perceived susceptibility/perceived risk  Severity  Belief doing behavior can effectively reduce risk  Belief that behavior itself can reduce threat  Belief that benefits of doing behavior outweigh costs  Support for what behaviors?  Cancer screening, HIV testing  Most studied construct?  Specific beliefs about vulnerability o View perceived risk as central BUT…  Interventions show only moderate success  Some correlational studies show moderate associations at best o Criticism:  Health belief model has focused on perceived risk measures that are too cognitive; affect related to risk has been ignored  Cited as rationale for sometimes weak association between perceived risk & health behavior  Taking into account affect would improve prediction o Typical measures:  Not at all likely to extremely likely  Extremely low chance to extremely high chance  0% (no chance of happening) to 100% (guaranteed to happen) o Perceived risk isn’t just about beliefs or probabilities, but also feelings  Example:  What is an event for which you may have a high risk, but you don’t feel vulnerable? o Car accidents  An event for which you have a low risk, but feel vulnerable? o Airplane crash, shark attack  Theory of Planned Behavior o Best way to predict behavior is INTENTIONS  Intentions shaped by:  Attitude toward behavior beliefs & evaluations of likely outcomes  Subjective norms how do others view the behavior?  Perceived behavioral control expectation that we can successfully perform behavior (self-efficacy) o Lots of experimental support  Predicts taking medication, exercise, eating behavior, condom use, cancer screening & more  Compared to health behavior model?  More time & support o Meta-analyses find 40-50% of variance in intentions is explained by the 3 factors & intentions then explains 38% of behavior o When intentions are specific, predictive power is improved  Implementation intentions- how you’ll do the behavior, where you’ll do the behavior, and when you’ll do the behavior o Implementation intentions intervention  114 Michigan patients randomly assigned to intervention or control all patients had a heart attack & did 8 weeks of a rehabilitation program before participating in the study  Intervention: learned about implementation intentions & formed them o Ex) “I plan to exercise X times per week, I plan to exercise at a certain time of day between X & X, I plan to do such exercises as X and where I will exercise o Criticism:  Risky behaviors are typically NOT planned but instead are reaction to a social situation  What is behavior willingness?  “openness to risk opportunity”  How willing/open someone is to a behavior tends to predict a little bit better  Ex) adolescents don’t intend to engage in smoking or unsafe sex or drinking usually happen spontaneously o Research shows behavioral willingness is associated with behavior intentions but it also predicts additional variance in behavior (2-10%)  Especially for who?  Young people/adolescents  Risky behaviors occur when adolescents are put in a situation  What is the common pattern observed?  Behavior intention is low but behavior willingness is high o Relationship with experience?  Little experience= more behavior willingness  Little experience predicts behavior better o Behaviors that may be opportunistic throughout life: drunk driving, smoking  Cognitive Perspectives o Cognitive theories focus on how behavior has been learned and reinforced  Cognitive behavior therapy- determine & change the conditions that elicit, maintain, and reinforce a behavior  How is it different from attitudinal approach?  More individualize/personalize  Done with a therapist  Use steps of monitoring o Ex) having trouble losing weight have them keep diary of what they eat & then come up with techniques that could work  Following monitoring of behavior, various techniques would be implements  Examples of techniques  Cognitive restructuring o Ex) thought repression, counter-arguing  Role modeling o Therapist models behaviors that client has to enact & practice then do it on own in daily life o Associative learning principles are inherent in cognitive behavior theories  Example: operant conditioning  Self-reinforcement: systematically rewarding oneself to increase a particular behavior o Positive vs negative reinforcement  Positive- reward with something desirable after a behavior occurs  Negative- removing something negative from the situation after the behavior occurs o Differs from punishment?  Reinforcement is used to increase a behavior  Punishment is used to decrease a behavior  Not very successful  Example: classical conditioning  First methods of health behavior change were based on this type of learning  *Pavlov’s dog*  Antabuse- medicine for alcoholics o Takes the medicine & when they drink one sip of alcohol they get REALLY sick should develop strong aversion because of the sick feeling o *need to use for a long time  Social Cognitive Theory o How do individuals learn behavior?  Through observations of others in their environment  Learning is especially likely to occur when the person is similar or is the behavior is unfamiliar o “Vicarious Learning”  Learning through others/by watching others  Only happens when it increases self-efficacy  Popular program that is based heavily on SCT?  Alcoholics Anonymous  How is this integrated into intervention?  Showing someone they can overcome an obstacle  Transtheoretical Model o Also known as “TTM”  Originally developed to treat addiction-based behaviors  People go through distinct stages which are associated with different processes  Effectiveness of treatment/intervention will depend on match (which stage person is in) o 5 stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance  Precontemplation:  Are aware that they have a problem; change may be due to pressure from others; no intention of changing behavior  “Are seriously intending to change that problem behavior in the near future, within the next 6 months? o Would answer no  Contemplation:  Seriously considering change, but haven’t decided to take action; may be “stuck”  Process: evaluation of pros & cons  Are you seriously intending to change the problem behavior in the near future, within the next 6 months? o Would answer yes  Preparation:  Intending to take action in the next month; have made a failed attempt of quitting; have made small behavioral changes; make specific plans for action  Are you seriously intending to change in the next month? o Would answer yes  Action:  Visible changes to behavior; could be significant reduction or quit; changes have lasted 1 day to 6 months  I am really working hard to change o Would strongly agree with this statement  Not permanent change relapse is a high possibility  Maintenance:  Actively working to prevent relapse; free of behavior for 6 months; indefinites stage (still chance for relapse, still need to work hard to maintain behavior change) o Spiral pattern of change- most people are NOT successful on first cycle; smokers in maintenance report being in action stage average 3-4 times; relapse is the rule rather than exception  Where do they go when they relapse?  In general, the more cycling through the stages, the greater the chance of eventual success people learn to overcome barriers as they relapse & recycle stages


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.