BIO 102 - Week 1 Notes
BIO 102 - Week 1 Notes BI 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 1 - Tuesday 1/5/2016 Science Matters Different fields of study acquire knowledge in different ways o Everyone is comfortable in a different field o We are talking about science Scientists Conduct research about observable phenomenon. o The research process is complex There is no one scientific method of research o Observable phenomenon - things we can observe and see Science is only one way of knowing and viewing the world o Not the only way o Issues that involve science: Species extinction, human cloning, animal use But there are way more fields that weigh in on these issues 1. Ethics 2. Theology 3. Politics 4. Arts 5. Economics 6. STEM - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics o People do not necessarily have to agree with scientific contributions, you must only understand them. Observation (and inference) o Sounds, sight, taste, etc o We process/make inferences on those senses immediately based on our past experiences and brain structure. Who you are/how you've been raised/your culture effects what you infer about the world o Observations lead to scientific knowledge Scientific Knowledge o Example: Heritage/Intheritance We knew that kids resembled parents, but why? Took a while to learn that there are laws of genetics Law vs Theory Law - description Theory - explanation of how it works Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin o Mendel - father of genetics; came up with the theory of genetics o Darwin - Theory of natural selection; laws of evolution Because of them, we have the capabilities to design species - AKA Gene Splicing Biology You Can Use - Corn 1. Consumer a. Corn & Diet - the color of corn refers to cellular functions; the nutritional molecule or whatever b. Growing Corn 2. Culture a. History - lots of stuff happened in nature to give us modern corn (hybrids and mutation); has a huge effect on cultural diet based on location b. Current significance - huge part of economy; impacts what happens seasonally (similar to grass harvest) impacts sales and transportation 3. Citizen a. Economy - Primarily grown as feed for cattle, human consumption, and ethanol - huge in politics in Iowa. (It's used in fuel) b. Labeling GMOs - Genetically Modified Organisms (have DNA from a different species added to it); highly controversial; Week 1 - Thursday 1/5/2016 Mendel & Inheritance Artificial Selection Choosing and breeding organisms with desired traits (Artificial = human involvement) o Variation → Selection Example: Vegetables like Kale, coli flour, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and lettuce all came from the same singular original plant (Brassica). But when we bread Coli Flour and broccoli, it made an entirely new vegetable called broccoflour. → Animals have also been bred to have a specific muscle structure for us to eat. → Though we've been breeding a lot of animals for different reasons, the oldest artificially-selected animal we have is the dog. o We've been breeding them for thousands of years - not just for food, but for pets and research purposes. Early Ideas of Inheritance Ancient cultures recognized inheritance → we know from old artifacts o Especially Egyptians o They recognized it in crops and animals, and used it in artificial selection We didn't have an ancient explanation for inheritance until the Greek with Aristotle. o He spent time trying to understand the natural world o The Greek understood that during reproduction, there was an 'exchange of fluids' and they called all fluids blood. "Royal-blood" or "pure-blooded" comes from this idea. Fluids came together and yielded offspring. 17th Century - topological advancement → microscopes o They look under the microscope at the "fluids" o They can see that there are cells in there, but they think they're tiny humans inside the egg and sperm. Ovists → Little people wrapped up in the egg Spermists → Little people inside the sperm 18th Century - although we continue to think that the sperm/egg/fluids have to do with inheritance, we get something wrong. o Think that the egg and sperm come together and blend together the traits of both parents. So out comes a tiny smashed blend of only the parents. Blending theory o This really isn't true → think about breeding corn. If you have purple corn and yellow corn and you breed them together, you're gonna get purple corn. But if you breed it with its siblings, you'll likely get purple/yellow spotted corn. Crazy. Mendel's Life Story Mendel came from a family of modest farmers in the same time period as Darwin (19th century), in what is not the Czech Republic. He was an excellent bee-keeper, and a gardener o Bees were critical in this time period because of the need for sugar in the diets of people with honey. He went to school to study Philosophy, Physics, and theology o He did okay, but not great - he has very poor health and misses a lot of school Then he joined an Abbey as a priest → also maintained the garden to feed the community o Where he grows peas. o When Mendel was given a packet of seeds, he knew exactly what the type was and could predict the traits they'd have. o He did experiments with true bred plants to cross-breed them Monohybrid → One-trait-cross Flower Color - purple cross with white first generation of parents are F1 He discovers when breeding purple and white, that when purple comes out, that means purple has a dominant factor(allele) Then he breeds that generation with itself. Blending theory says that it would have only purple offspring But what comes out, is three purples and one white. This causes his discovery of a ratio of purple to white traits in the offspring So he assigns letters to the dominant and recessive traits (Dominant = B and Recessive = b) So true bred purple = BB True bred white = bb Crossing them looks like this: BB x bb Bb - BB - bb - Bb He discovers a phenotype - the visible traits observed. You see purple and white flower color Then explains that there's stuff you can't see: Genotype - combination of alleles Principle of Segregation - Two alleles (B,b) can separate and recombine Principle of independent assortment - Different traits (genes) can be inherited independently of each other. o Discovered when Mendel did Dihybrid breeding, where he bred things with two different traits. Yellow smooth peas X green wrinkled peas First gen = yellow smooth (means those traits are dominant) Then he bred the offspring with each other This gives him FOUR types of peas, instead of two. Green and smooth, yellow and smooth, green wrinkled, and yellow wrinkled. WHOA. Now he starts breeding fucking bees. But he wasn't ever recognized for his scientific work, even after publishing this research. Instead, he's pushed to focus on his work as a priest, and is known for that. o He didn't have an explanation for his science, that's why no one cared. o He only had the Law, not the theory. Only the description, not the explanation (1869) But there's this guy named Friedrich Meischer, who discovers the nucleus inside cells. o He knew white blood cells had a nucleus o By analyzing white blood cells, he discovers DNA without knowing it. Of course, we don't catch up to this for a long time in science. He called it nuclein. (1890s) It takes an advancement of the microscope to learn to observe Chromosomes o We find that every living thing has chromosomes, and they all look a lot alike (1900s) We make the connection between Mendel's "Factors" as a part of chromosomes.
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