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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Psychology & Culture week 4 Class #8 First Steps o How will you measure your concepts? Operational definition: the actions/operations that will be used to measure/control the concept being studied Ex) measuring/manipulating extraversion have to define what “extraversion” is Ex) culture o “Frontier Spirit” study to see if people show broad general cultural characteristics of their respected countries o Can also be more specific o Study Designs Correlational Predict, examine associations between concepts o Ex) Do achievement-related emotions predict happiness? Experimental Identify cause o Ex) Does a feeling of achievement (vs. social harmony) lead to us to feel happier? Key features: o Independent variable (what researcher manipulates during experiment), dependent variable (what researcher measures) o Random assignment- people involved in study are randomly assigned to either be part of the “control group” or the “experimental group” ***CAN’T randomly assign someone to a culture Quasi-experimental Comparing existing groups (cultural background IS NOT manipulated); can’t claim causality *Unpackaging- identifying the underlying variables that give rise to different cultural differences Common concerns in cultural research o Methodological equivalence *Primary concern! Equivalence=some experimental control Ex) different cultures can look & answer the same question very differently Have to make sure EVERYONE of EVERY culture can understand the question the way you want it to be understood Translating materials Back-translation: o Two translators (***BOTH MUST BE BILINGUAL***) Translator #1 translates original English questions to desired language Translator #2 translates the already translated materials BACK into English End up with two English versions of the questions o Compare the two English versions to make sure the questions’ meaning is maintained through translation into a different language Response biases Social desirability bias o What is it? Someone wants to present themselves as someone who is desired by their culture o When & for whom does it concern? When researching across cultures mainly collectivistic cultures Researchers need to be aware of this o How to deal with it? “Hide” what a test is actually testing (cover story) Ex) hot sauce & aggression *must debrief afterwards* Class #9 Common concerns in cultural research o Response biases Acquiescence bias What is it? o Tendency to agree with most statements When & for whom does it occur? o Research across cultures especially collectivistic cultures because they’re focused on social harmony o Researchers need to be aware of this How to deal with it? o Rephrase questions make a negative question sound positive o Use scale of 1-7 Ex) “I don’t mind being the center of attention” or “I am quiet around strangers” o Reverse questions show when someone is being acquiescent on other non-reversed questions o Gaining background knowledge Provides foundation for your specific investigation *go to anthropologists for information of cultures *also have “informants” that are either a part of the culture or know a lot about the culture o Abridged version of “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema”, by Harold Miner Making the familiar unfamiliar to highlight ethnocentrism in the field Read background research carefully, attending to the possibility of bias Nacirema American Wrote about an extreme version of American culture Mouth rite= toothbrush Women’s head in oven= hair dryer Medicine man= doctor o Bias toward ethnocentrism instead of practicing cultural relativism Why do people fall prey to ethnocentrism? It’s derived from basic cognitive & evaluate processes o Association, comparison, categorization learned early, prompts judgement People lack ability and/or motivation to overcome bias Class #10 Culture & Attachment o Attachment styles Secure (~62%) Anxious-ambivalent (insecure, ~15%) dependent on caregiver Avoidant (insecure, ~23%)autonomy/more independent from caregiver *percents based on research done in U.S. o During separation/reunion experiment Secure During play- exploring Departure of caregiver- distressed & seeks proximation Reunion- decrease distress & seeks proximation Anxious-ambivalent During play- doesn’t explore Departure of caregiver- distressed & seeks proximation Reunion- still distressed & seeks proximation Avoidant During play- exploring Departure of caregiver- little distress & doesn’t seek proximation Reunion- no change in behavior o Similar breakdown across cultures? Avoidance most common in Germany (49%) Anxious-ambivalence as common as secure in Japan o Are important tenets of attachment theory similar/different across cultures? Are the core features of each attachment style similar/different? Does caregiver sensitivity influence attachment style? o Focus on Japan Studies tend to suggest emphasis on dependence & therefore increased rates of anxious-ambivalence But, anxious-ambivalence mostly derives from amae (indulgent- dependnece depend on those who indulge us) o Amae in Japanese experience of attachment (Mizuta et al., 1996) Japanese & U.S. kids (age 4-5 ½) *cross cultural study* Examined child’s behavior pre-separation & at reunion Kid’s anxiety at separation Negatives & positives at reunion Behavior at reunion o Signs of amae: close physical contact, persistent requests; mom’s physical proximity
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