BIO 120- NOTES 1
BIO 120- NOTES 1 Bio 120-001
Popular in Principals of biology
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Marie Halaby on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 120-001 at Towson University taught by Partain in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
Reviews for BIO 120- NOTES 1
Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!
-Mabel Bailey IV
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/05/16
BIO 120 Notes from 1/29/16 – 2/5/16 Biology: the study of living things What makes up a living individual? o Organization (cells/molecules) & taxonomy: the naming of things o Energy (getting and using) – the sun is the main source of energy o Genetic information (DNA/ Inheritance) o Continuity (the same molecules> unity of origin) o Reproduction (sexual and asexual) o Homeostasis (constant internal environment) Groups of living things: o Diversity o Evolution > explain diversity The Scientific Method: 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis: a question that needs to be answered – it must be testable and falsifiable – a hypothesis cannot be proven 3. Experiment: testing the hypothesis > includes manipulating the environment one variable at a time – this helps to determine what specific variables are involved – there must be a controlled and experimental variable in each experiment a. Control: aims to make sure that the experiment isn’t biased does not get the experimental treatment – eliminates alternative hypothesis by eliminating differences between groups b. Random Assignment: means that it is unlikely that there will be a systematic difference between groups c. Double Blind Experiment: when the scientist and subject both do not know the details of the experiment 4. Data Collection: it can be quantitative or qualitative data collected is used to accept or reject the hypothesis a. Statistics: a short hand term for data – it is used to determine if the difference between the two groups is random or scientific – does not tell if an experiment is valid or not b. Statistically significant: when the result is very unlikely due to the chance difference between the experimental and control group c. Sample size: the number of individuals in the experimental and control groups – the larger the sample size the more likely it is that it will represent reality 5. Determining Hypothesis: the hypothesis is either rejected or supported NOT PROVEN – we can never be 100% sure but we can gather enough evidence to determine whether a hypothesis is reasonably true or not Everything that we know and understand is based on all available information If an hypothesis has been repeatedly tested and supported it may eventually be accepted as accurate – even if this happens we still cannot say a hypothesis is true A hypothesis is not always the best tool for studying things from the past – this is where examining fossils and carbon dating is used Correlational Study: o Researchers who collect data on subjects psychological stress levels before giving them nasal drops that contain the cold virus o Looking at existing data to determine relationship/correlation between variables o Puts data in a form of statistics o Correlation does not mean causation Scientific Theory: o Can explain how the natural world “works” o Explains what we think of as the truth o A well supported observation and experiment from several different, independent lines of research o If there is an abundance of evidence then the idea may be referred to as a theory Nonscientific Theory: o It is the same idea as an hypothesis an untested idea, based on little information o Germ Theory of Disease: Scientist noticed a relationship between disease and specific micro organisms 1800s Since then, many experiments and observations all supported the idea that certain microorganisms cause human disease Primary Sources: o Used for publishing scientific results o Terms used can usually only be understood by people in the specific field o Articles are often peer reviewed Secondary Sources: o CNN, Time Magazine o Info is lost from the primary source to the secondary source Unscientific Information: o Dr. Oz o Anecdotal: base on experience, not on experimental data o Info in the media that is based on a scientific study is usually missing crucial information Water: o Human body over 60% water o Plants – 65%80% water o Oxygen: negative o Hydrogen: positive o Asymmetrical o Like dissolves like o Polarity in a water molecule: Hydrogen bond: weak – negatively charged atom – can get together and break apart with little effort Water molecules are polar Polar: an asymmetrical distribution of electrical charge – these molecules (glucose) will dissolve readily in water ex. water Non Polar: a symmetrical distribution of an electrical charge – the molecules (lipids) will not dissolve in water ex. Methane Hydrophobic: compounds that do not dissolve readily in water ex. Oil Hydrophilic: compound that dissolves easily in water ex. Water –a hydrogen bond forms from breaking an iconic bond Amphathic: when a molecule has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions ex. Taking oil off of animals near oil spills Physical Properties of Water: o It is a liquid at moderate temperatures – most other substances this size are gas o Water molecules cohere (stick together) – creating surface tension ex. animals gliding on water o Water molecules adhere ex. meniscus in a straw in a cup of water o Water can dissolve many other substances – universal solvent – due to polarity o Water can hold a lot of heat relative to its volume o Water expands when it freezes and is less dense than liquid water so it floats pH: o measures the amount of H in a solution o scale of 014 o most life functions best at 7 (neutral) H+ = OH equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide o H20 > H+ hydrogen acid OH hydroxide base o 07 : acidic o 714 basic o non polar= balanced o rain is slightly acidic Organic Chemistry: o Carbon is the basis for organic molecules o Carbon can form 4 strong bonds w/ other atoms o Carbon is the basis for life o Carbon has multiple sites for connections that allow carbon Macro Molecules: o Organic o All molecules contain carbon and are either living or were living at one point o 4 important groups of macro molecules (larger organic molecules) and are produced only by living organisms Carbohydrates: the more refined the carbohydrates the faster the glucose is released into the blood stream – the body digests complex carbs more slowly than simple carbs because complex carbs have more chemical bonds to break Proteins: provide very little energy – carbs provide lots of energy – helps cells communicate with each other – need a specific function – from = function the overall shape of the protein molecule determines its function in the organism collagen: structural protein hemoglobin: carries oxygen Lipids: Nucleic acids Enzymes and Metabolism; o Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions that happen in the cells of the body o Enzymes: regulates metabolic reaction > breaks down food and liberates the energy stored in their chemical bond Enzymes work for very specific molecules – they keep working until they breakdown and need to be recycled o Lactose Intolerance: people are missing or low on the lactase enzyme – which breaks down lactose (causes a build up of lactic acid in the intestines causing symptoms of bloating, cramps, and diarrhea
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'