Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by jesse mcconnico on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Brian A. Drake in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Immigration and Urbanization in the Industrial Era ▯ Intro: Immigration is built on the backs of immigrants ▯ I. Immigration Waves “The Third Wave” – 1880-1920 o Peak year: 1909-1910 – over 1.3 million immigrants enter o Most from Southeast/Central Europe o Chinese and Japanese immigrate to West Coast o Looking for freedom/economic stability o “push” & “pull” factors push immigrants out of their countries and attractive qualities of American economy pull them in Famine in Italy Religious persecution of Jews in Russia and Poland o Most immigrants migrated temporarily – intended on returning home once they earned enough money ½ of all Italians returned home 1/3 of all immigrants returned home o Immigrated to big cities – N.Y.C. Boston, Chicago, L.A., San Francisco Some go west to take advantage of the Homestead Act Ethnic neighborhoods are formed – Little Italy, Pol Town ▯ II. City Life st ~87% of people are immigrants or 1 generation Americans Cultural support – be with your own people o Can speak their native language and form connections o Immigrant aid societies o Churches/ religious group familiar to back home Corrupt Politics o The political machines – dominated big cities Organization run like a hierarchy Goal: make its members wealthy and powerful NYC’s Tammany Hall Help others if it benefits their vote – buying votes with services Living Conditions o Slums – tenement neighborhoods Overcrowding – avg. 4 rooms holding 18.5 people Crime – thriving in larger populations Intense poverty o Close community and attractions like Coney Island ▯ III. Fears of Immigrants among native-born Americans Religion – most immigrants weren’t protestant like the majority of Americans o Fear their freedom of religion would be challenged Ethnic differences o Immigrants are not capable of the vote – especially Irish as they were viewed as drunkards o Ruin democracy Economic fears o Jobs were being taken away by immigrants o Chinese exclusion act of 1882 Ban Chinese (and later all of Asia) from entering Radicalism and Marxist/Socialist politics o Anti-Capitalism beliefs emerging especially with factory workers o Opening the door to a revolution? ▯ IV. Immigrants and Urban Reform Jacob A. Rhis – Photographer/ reporter of living conditions who claimed that good people just couldn’t seem to break out of the intense living conditions o Environment strongly influences how a person turns out o Called for improvement – wanted to assimilate the immigrants and teach them how to be American Sound Familiar?? (Assimilation of Native Americans) ▯ Intro: Industrialization changes the economy dramatically Raises these questions o What does democracy look like on the job? o What rights do workers and owners have? Costs of Industrialization are significant o Kids are working for low wages o Working conditions/ no safety regulations o “piecework” – working out of worker’s tiny apartment ▯ I. Working Conditions in Factories – 19 Century Sanitation is horrible – pollution contaminating rivers o 35,000 people/year died from industrial accidents no worker’s compensation Working hours are long o Avg. shift was 10-16 hours o Saturday is a work day Work Style – regimented, repetitive, “on the clock” o Taylorism – scientific management system for labor Efficiency expert “Deskilling” of Labor o death of the craftsmen – people who know what they’re doing – artisans would have a personal relationship with their boss had pride in their work – all lost o alienation from the product o machines replaced skilled workers – Carnegie’s father Wages – labor prices were low but still better than Europe o Workers were replaceable, and there were many ▯ II. Unionization and Strikes – resisting industrial conditions 1886 – National Labor Union – somewhat exclusive group 1877 Great Railraod Strike o owners could call in U.S. army to break up strikes o unsuccessful railroad strikes result in unions Knights of Labor Allowed everyone except Chinese and enemies of the movement Producerism – claim that wealth was created by the workers while the owners sat back and did nothing and took all the money Requirements of the Knights of Labor Radical goals: increased wages and lower hours 8 hr. movement 1886 The Haymarket Riot – Chicago supports KOF movement Protestor throws bomb at police which leads to the end of the Knights of Labor who was believed to be associated with the planning because the protestor was in their union American Federation of Labor Founded by Samuel Gompers as a more conservative union ▯ III. More Radical Unions – often oppressed by authorities Serious change was needed – Revolutionary activities o United Mine Workers of America Miners lived in the worst conditions where the mining companies basically owned their worker’s lives Lived in company housing, still had to pay rent Bought food from company store Paid in coupons to company store Sound familiar?? (Sharecropping) Colorado Mine worker strike Miners were kicked out of their houses and forsed to live in tents in the freezing cold Industrial Workers of the World Most radical unionists, some of which wanted revolution Socialists/ communists o 1892 Homestead Steel Strike – Andrew Carnegie fights back
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