BI102 - Week Two
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 2 Proteins Review: → Chromosomes under the microscope are actually tightly-coiled up DNA. →Genes code for cells to construct proteins. → Different verions of genes are called alleles. There are different Essential Amino acids for different animals. o This is why we can't feed cats dog food - it doesn't contain the essential amino acids that cats need. Dietary supplements misconceptions o "You can take proteins and they automatically go to the right part of the body and do what you need it to." → No that's not how it works. Your body has to break those into the amino acids and move all over the body through your bloodstream. Then your body constructs the proteins however it wants. It's just extra amino acids. o "You need extra amino acids." → there's no reason for you to take in extra unless you have a defficiency or absorbtion problem. You're wasting your money NEW: Amino acids exist in space → we found amino acids on meteorites Amino acids can form without life Miller - Urer Experiment → Need to be assembled into a protein Polypeptide: Chain of amino acids; bonds between amino acids. (This alone is not sufficient for life) In order to get to a protein, the polypeptide needs to be "folded" in a specific way → It's folded into different shapes to make a protein. But if it's folded in a wrong way, it can lead to diseases like Alzheimer's. Misfolded proteins accumulate, and at a certain age the body starts to fail. The cells cannot clean up the misfolded proteins. They accumulate the proteins and they die, causing loss of brain function. Key: Protein Shape Impacts its Function Structure (collagen) Storage (ferritin) Transport (hemoglobin) → Responsible for oxygen flow in the body Receptor (rhodopsin) Messages (growth hormone) → Informtation that causes things to happen in the body Binding (antibody) Enzyme (Lactase) Protein Synthesis: 1. Transcription a. Make a copy of part of the DNA that can leave the nucleus b. The copy is of the gene region, that codes for protein (RNA copy of a gene) 2. Translation a. RNAs indicate the order of amino acids correctly b. There are three types of RNAs involved c. This is what distinguishes a meteorite that simple has amino acids from actual organisms. d. We can't do this in a lab. → Anabolic steroids increase transcription (certain proteins are made more; specifically muscles) Lots of problems 1. Body can't distinguish muscle proteins from heart proteins → causes heart issues 2. Can lead to problems developing →Antibiotics (dugs used to kill bacteria) (some) Work by blocking bacterial transcription - RNAs don't get made Sometimes these can work against us o Certain mushrooms can block protein synthesis - "Deathcap Mushroom" Contains a toxin that, when ingested, is impossible to remove from the body. Moves within minutes to the liver and blocks translation - stops RNAs from working The liver fails → you die w/in less than a week After Mendel Mendel: Complete Dominance → only the dominant allele's protein is produced Some traits follow incomplete dominance o A little of each protein is produced White + red flower = pink flower??? → A little bit of each protein is produced in breeding to create pink coloring Co-dominance → a lot of each protein is produced The ABO blood system Mendel did not deal with this Polygenic → Multiple genes determine trait Four different genes actually control human eye color. Mendel also did not deal with this.
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