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Critical Thinking

by: Andrew Edwards

Critical Thinking PHIL 103

Andrew Edwards
SUNY College at Oneonta
GPA 3.91
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These notes are from the first several lectures from class. They cover some of the basics about arguments, the rules for determining whether or not they are valid, some of the different types of a...
Critical Thinking
Dr. Michael Koch
Class Notes
PHIL 103




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Edwards on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 103 at SUNY College at Oneonta taught by Dr. Michael Koch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at SUNY College at Oneonta.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
Critical Thinking  By:  Andrew Edwards  Basic Terms Related to Logic  Logic is another word for thinking while normative describes anything that  follows by rules/norms.  Norms are the provided foundation that people are supposed to base their  actions upon.  Irrationality could be defined as acting on emotion or making poor  decisions.  Premises are what the conclusion of an argument is based on and they affect  the truthfulness of the conclusion.  Inference is coming to a conclusion based on the provided premises.  Implication is when you intend to say something subtly. Issues Involved with Arguments 1. Are the premises true? 2. If the premises are true, do they support the truthfulness of the conclusion? (Example)  Premise 1:  All S are P.                    Premise 2:   All Q are P. Conclusion:  All S are Q. This is an invalid argument since second premise is false given that the first  premise already says that all S are P.  After all, whenever premises contradict each  other, they cannot support the conclusion. Common categories can be implemented as a way of determining an argument is true.   (Example)  Premise 1:  All snow is white. Premise 2:  All precipitation is wet. Conclusion:  Therefore, all snow is wet. *When you use counterexamples against and argument, widely known facts must be used.   Different Types of Arguments Deductive:  The argument is moving from a general statement to a specific one. Inductive:  The argument is moving from a specific statement to a general one. *In a deductive argument, a true premise cannot be present along with a false conclusion. Deductive argument premises give whatever validation is necessary for the conclusion to be true. Inductive arguments make general conclusions about an entire population through sampling a part of the population. *Arguments can be visual and verbal, especially since our society continues to use images to make statements. Straw Man argument:  The interpreting of an argument in a certain way so it is weaker and easier to defeat.   Analogical arguments are typically weak, yet they are always made.  They are also based on comparing one thing to another. Causal arguments are based on what is known about causal relationships. *The principle of the generous interpretation is that people ought to be given as much credit for their argument as possible. *If the conclusion of a deductive argument is valid, it is sound. *If the conclusion of an inductive argument is valid, it is cogent. Ordinary Language  It is capable of being interpreted in different ways.  Or, for example, can be inclusive (P or Q) or both, or exclusive (P or Q) and not both.   *There is typically one conclusion for every argument.   Other Important Information  Propositional logic attempts to make inferential arguments with propositions as well as logical operators such as and & or easier to comprehend.  Logical operators are used to connect two, sometimes more than two, sentences in a way that makes sure the compound sentence relies solely on the   sentences   that   were   used   to   make   the   compound   sentence (  Appeal to genuine authority:  This means that the premises are based on information from  a reliable source and that it is sensible to believe something is true.  Appeal Non­genuine authority:  This means the premises are not based on information from  a reliable source and that it is sensible to believe something is false.


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