BI102 - Week 3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 3 Development Review: Paradigm = widely accepted theory Genes = parts of chromosomes that codes for protein Genomes All the hereditary information found in an organism o Human have 23 pairs of chromosomes (most of our genome) o They reside in the nucleus (protected) Mitochondria also carry DNA - mitochondrial DNA What sets humans apart from other species? Not a lot - we have the same genetic code for the same amino acids as all other species o We have the technology to take the DNA from one species and insert it into the chromosomes of another. Number of chromosomes → Fruit flies have 8 chromosomes; humans have 46 chromosomes o Still doesn't make us special (dogs and chickens have more chromosomes than us) Number of genes → Nope; lots of stuff has more genes than us (even microscopic organisms) o We actually share a lot of genes w/ other species Similarity in genes → Mice vs humans; mice have similar genes, just rearranged on different chromosomes. o We also have extremely similar proteins Fruit Flies - Myosin Humans - also have Myosin o Kinase → we share genetic makeup and protein produced in bacteria and yeast, too. If we're so similar, then what's causing our differences? (we share about 75% of the same genes as a fruit fly, but we aren't a fruit fly) → Not everything is related to genes in our DNA. Only a small part of DNA in our chromosomes is actually genes The rest is non-coding DNA ("junk") - 90% of our DNA This is massively different from other species! → The larger-structured, multicelluar organisms have less and less coding DNA, and more "junk" DNA. o This DNA isn't just doing nothing, it's doing something Transposons → non-coding DNA that can be copied and move around chromosomes o Can copy and move/re-cell in the middle of a gene - changing the way the gene works. Fruit Flies: 1. Egg 2. Larva (maggots) 3. Pupa (a case forms around the larva, it gel-i-fies, chromosomes rearrange) 4. Adult Fertilization: 1N +1N = 2N (2N = 8 chromosomes) 1N = 4 chromosomes Mitosis: 2N to 2N (rapid reproduction) Meiosis: 2N to 1N (ready for reproduction to produce 8 chromosomes) 1. Meiosis: Process that produces eggs and sperm. Sexual reproduction. (2N to 1N) → 8 Chromosomes to 4 chromosomes *Note: meiosis happens in the Uterus (female) and Testicles (male); only place this happens. 2. Fertilization: One egg finds one sperm and forms an organism (1N + 1N = 2N) → 4 chromosomes + 4 chromosomes = 8 chromosomes 3. Development (Mitosis) : Fertilized egg (1 cell) → embryo (mass amount of cells) (2N to 2N) → massive amounts of mitosis happening. Excessive mitosis → Cancer (happens) Cell differentiation→ making different cells Embryonic cells give rise to specialized cells (heart, skin, brain, etc.) Stem cells → non-differentiated cells Position of cells switch on (bookmark) specific genes. *Note: Mitosis is continuously happening always to repair your cells (especially wound repair) Master Control Genes → One gene controls many other genes. If the chromosomes are bathed in a lot of protein, the master control gene says "this is the head" Not as much protein on chromosomes, master control gene says "this is the abdomen" HOX genes - Organize head, thorax, and abdomen Environmental Factors → Genetics and Environmental factors impact phenotypes Genetics Nature Environmental Factors Nurture Ex: Four-leaf clover Some are created by genetics Certain four-leaf clovers are produced by pesticides o But you cannot tell which is which Rat Cognitive Ability Rats being able to complete a maze are partially because of its genetics But diet plays a huge role in the way a rat learns o No sufficient amino acids, no proteins are formed to learn Heterochromia (eyes have distinct patches of color) Some people are born with this Others are caused from injury to the iris o You can't tell from the phenotype Sex-Influence Traits (humans and other mammals) Hormones activate genes (esp. secondary sex characteristics) o Antlers, peacock feathers, etc. → Environmental Impacts on Human Development Thalidomide: 1950s drug to stop morning sickness for pregnant women o But it fucked up master control genes in the baby Mutations in the brain, eyes, face, arms and legs Embryonic and fetal development Zika: Mosquito-carried virus o If a pregnant woman is infected it can lead to microcephaly Impacts master control gene in fetal development in the brain Tiny brains in babies - mutation in the skull
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