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## CJ 280-002 Notes on Hypothesis, Causation, and Units of Analysis

by: Jennifer Gintovt

26

0

2

# CJ 280-002 Notes on Hypothesis, Causation, and Units of Analysis CJ 280

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Criminal Justice > CJ 280 > CJ 280 002 Notes on Hypothesis Causation and Units of Analysis
Jennifer Gintovt
UA
GPA 3.361

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Here are my notes from lecture with Dr. Dolliver on forming research questions and ways of testing them.
COURSE
Research Methods
PROF.
Matthew Dolliver
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
CONCEPTS
CJ 280-002, Criminal Justice, research methods, causation
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Criminal Justice

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 280 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Matthew Dolliver in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
CJ 280­002 2/1/16 Null Hypothesis  The status quo is going to win  Point of stasis o Starting place o Probability  o EX. Women watch more TV than men  Null hypothesis would be: there’s no difference between the amount of  TV men and women watch  When you test this hypothesis and find something different, then you can  reject the null hypothesis Research Hypothesis  Your statement  A statement, not THE statement  Directional? o EX. Group X’s average score will be different (or higher/lower) than group Y  on test Z Want to make a good hypothesis  Be clear o Make a clear stand from abstraction  State the expected relationship o “This will effect that”  Reflect theory and/or literature o Why do you think that? Test it! Not prove it…  To the point o Distraction hurts later interpretation  EX. Mr. Jones birth control  Testable o Can always go back to the theory later Control Variables  Strain them out  Ceteris Paribus  EX. IQ, age, race, and SES – the crime connection Moderator Variables  Impacts the strength of the relationship/effect  EX. Stress coping crime Mediator Variables  Explains the relationship/effect CJ 280­002 2/1/16 Spuriousness  The “lurking variable”  EX. Ice cream and crime o If ice cream sales (represents hot temperature) increase, then crime increases (due  to the fact that there is higher levels of interaction between victims and offenders) Putting the cause in because  Causation ­ prediction and retrodiction o Hume (1700s)   Treatise on Human Understanding  Causation doesn’t exist­ just see one thing after another  3 parts  Must be correlated, or vary together (when we see one thing  change, we see another thing change) o Complexity means looking at aggregates and patterns  Time order o Post Hoc  No outside factors o Makes causation hard   Necessary and Sufficient conditions o Necessary –must be present o Sufficient – numerous ways to do something Constraints on data, what can we know…  Units of analysis o Nominal (“name”) grouped by quality  Breaking things into groups by NAME ONLY  EX. Political parties divided within a room o Ordinal (“order”) – group + order  EX. Tall people ordered separate from short people o Interval (“spaces between walls”) – difference is obvious  EX. Grade on an exam (units) 70% v. 80% o Ratio (“calculation”) just add zero­ gives true starting point  Might not demonstrate any of the behaviors   For example, if measuring height, no one will be 0 height

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