Popular in Music in World Culture
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by catherrinedoll on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 302 at Humboldt State University taught by Novotney,ED in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Music in World Cultures February 2, 2016 Rhythm continued. there is a marriage between rhythm and motion there is always static and dynamic energy in rhythm Rhythm can be periodic or nonperiodic Periodic Rhythm: occurring at regular (and measurable) intervals example: time on a clock, the calendar year Nonperiodic Rhythm: not occurring at regular (and measurable) intervals example: breathing, ocean waves *other cultures call this “breath rhythm” *If you can tap your foot to it, it is probably periodic Beat, Meter, and Tempo (these terms are only applicable when referring to periodic music) BEAT: a metrical pulse when used correctly, this term refers to the main pulsations (what you would tap your foot to) and ot the subdivisions METER: the pattern in which steady succession of beats is organized the most common patterns found throughout the world are groupings of two beats, three beats, or four beats) TEMPO: the rate of speed of the beats time DYNAMIC: (musical definition) volume from very soft to very loud TIME: the duration of all existence FORM: (universal definition) most common forms are strophic or binary Strophic: A Binary: A A Folkloric Music: verse and chorus A A’ or call and response A B February 4, 2016 Instrument Classification Do you classify things? How? Every musical sound has four common parameters: 1. Pitch (highness or lowness) 2. Dynamic (loudness or softness) 3. Duration (length in time) 4. Timbre (tone quality or “tonecolor”) *pronounces tamber TIMBRE What produced the sound? What does this sound have in common with other things that sound similar to it? As yourself this: What is unique about this sound that allows me n ot to confuse this sound with all of the other sounds that I have heard in my life? Example: When someone calls your name from behind you, we automatically go through filters in our minds to recognize where we’ve heard that voice before. Organology: the study of musical instruments *very finite field of study Brief history of instrument classification: China India Europe CHINA PaYin System yin: source of sound translation: ”what source of sound” developed about 2000 BCE (before common era) descriptive system with categories that describe the physical materials used to make the instruments Eight part system that had spiritual connotations to the eight winds or the eight directions 1. Metal 2. Stone 3. Silk 4. Bamboo 5. Gourd 6. Clay 7. Leather 8. Wood Problems with this system? Things are made out of different materials today and this form of grouping doesn’t work in other cultures. INDIA Natyasastra System described in the Natyasastra (Sanskrit Treatise) developed between 2 BCE and 6 CE descriptive system with categories that describe the nature of the instruments but not the physical materials used to make them Four part system describing how the instruments are made 1. Stretched meaning strings 2. Covered meaning covered 3. Hollow meaning wind instruments 4. Solid meaning instruments without many pieces (like a gong) *something that is an instrument itself EUROPE instrument classification system first developed in the late 1800’s by Victor Charles Mahillion died before his work was done received no credit Victor Charles Mahillion son of a family of stringed instrument makers became the curator of Brussels’ Conservatory Instrument Museum tasked with cataloging many unusual instruments from Belgian colonies in Africa used the instrument classification system of India as his basic model, but refined it Mahillion passes leaves two protege German scholars Erich von Hornbostel Curt Sachs *Mahillion did not come up with the actual names of the categories Hornbostel & Sachs described the nature of the vibration provided a place for each of the world’s known instruments provided a place for instruments not yet invented *this is an acoustic system for acoustic instruments Hornbostel & Sachs Classification System 1. Aerophone wind sounds 2. Chordophone string sounds 3. Idiophone self sounding 4. Membranophone skin sounds
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