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Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes

by: Freddi Marsillo

Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes PSYC 2544

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2544 > Industrial Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes
Freddi Marsillo
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

Detailed notes from Week 4 of class
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Blacksmith, N
Class Notes
Industrial/Organization Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
I-O Psychology Notes Week 4 05/02/2016 06.56.00  Job Analysis – Fundamental Properties and Practices  Job Analysis: process that determines “essence” of a collection of tasks falling within the scope of a particular job title  Why is Job Analysis important? How can it be used?  You can write a better description of the job to help applicants understand the position they’re applying for  Can be used for placement and promotion  Employee selection  Assess performance; rate employees, give them feedback, etc. o Can help to determine who does well o Define performance variable, measure performance  Workforce reduction  Criterion development  Compensation  Recruiting  Training  Job Analysis the “hub” of all HR interventions  Three Key Components of Job Analysis  1) Organizational-oriented job analysis  Determines needs and goals of organization; context – environment in the organization  2) Task-oriented job analysis  Begins with statement of actual tasks and what is accomplished by those tasks  3) Worker-oriented job analysis  Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks  KSAOs: Worker Attributes  Knowledge o Collection of discrete, related facts and information about a particular domain  Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills) o Practiced act  Ability o Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior  Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc.  How Job Analysis is Done  Interviews  Surveys  Observations  1) Observation  Problems: subjective, you can miss things, hard to observe someone doing their job (a lot of it is thinking, making decisions, etc.) – you can’t get inside their heads; hard to observe most professional jobs, so this method is used less than others  2) Literature review/Previous research  3) Interviews  Incumbents (people who are actually doing the job), supervisors  4) Critical incidents and work diaries  Keeps track of significant events that can describe something that happened (critical incidents)  5) Questionnaires/surveys  6) Performing the job  Doing the job yourself  Interviews in Job Analysis  Potential distorting influences in job analysis o Desire to make one’s job look more difficult o Attempts to provide answers that SME (Subject Matter Expert) thinks the job analyst wants o Carelessness  Critical Incident  A critical incident can be described as one that makes a contribution either positively or negatively to the job/organization  A significant event or experience on the job  Job Analysis: Newer Developments  Electronic performance monitoring o Can be cost effective o Potential for providing detailed and accurate work log o E.g., “This call may be monitored for quality control purposes”  Cognitive Task Analysis  Methods for decomposing job and task performance into discrete, measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental process and knowledge content  Think-aloud protocol o Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who achieve high levels of performance  Time consuming and requires a good deal of expertise to do well  Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis may be worthwhile: o Persistent performance problems o Costly errors or accidents o Training difficult to transfer to job behavior o Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance  Summary of the Job Analysis Process  1) The more information gathered from the greatest number of sources, the better the job analyst can understand the job  2) Most job analyses should include considerations of personality demands, work context, and organizational goals  Competency Modeling  Identifies characteristics desired across all individuals and jobs within an organization  Connects individuals with organizational viability and profitability  Natural extension of job analysis logic, rather than a replacement  Occupational Information Network (O*NET)  Giant database of job analysis information for tons of jobs  Introduced by the federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)  Electronic medium, so it can be updated instantaneously as changes occur  Job Analysis and Employment Litigation  Competent job analysis does not guarantee validity, but absence of credible job analysis could be very damaging  Growing gap between evolution of I-O Psychology and Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)  SIOP principles (2003) are more updated and consistent with current research  Job Performance Criteria  Basic definitions:  Performance: actions or behaviors on the job  Effectiveness: evaluation of results of performance  Productivity: ratio of effectiveness (output) to cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input)  Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria  Conceptual = theoretical construct, abstract idea  Actual criteria = observed measures of criteria  Objective criteria (e.g., records, sales numbers)  Subjective criteria (e.g., manager ratings)  Often there are problems with how job ratings and performance are evaluated  Could be missing components  Could be contaminated by other factors not having to do with the job (contamination)  Conceptual  Campbell’s Eight Factor Model  1) Task specific behaviors include those behaviors that an individual undertakes as part of a job – they are the core substantive tasks that delineate one job from another  2) Non-task specific behaviors are those behaviors which an individual is required to undertake which do not pertain only to a particular job o Example: a task specific behavior of a sales person might be showing a product to a potential customer, while a non-task specific behavior of a sales person might be training new staff members  3) Written and oral communication tasks refer to activities where the incumbent is evaluated, not on the content of a message necessarily, but on the adeptness with which they deliver the communication  4) An individual’s performance can also be assessed in terms of effort, either day to day, or when there are extraordinary circumstances o This factor reflects the degree to which people commit themselves to job tasks  5) Personal discipline – be in good standing with the law, not abuse alcohol, etc.  6) The degree to which a person helps out groups and his or her colleagues – this might include acting as a good role model, coaching, giving advice or helping maintain group goals  7) Many jobs also have a supervisory or leadership component – the individual will be relied upon to undertake many of the things delineated under the previous factor and in addition will be responsible for meeting out rewards and punishments  8) A managerial task would be setting an organizational goal or responding to external stimuli to assist a group in achieving its goals – in addition, a manager might be responsible for monitoring group and individual progress towards goals and monitoring organizational resources  Task vs. Contextual Performance (OCB and CWB)  Task Performance  Requirements vary from job to job  Individual differences tied to abilities and knowledge  Activities part of job description  Organizational Citizenship (OCB)  Common to most jobs  Individual differences tied to personality  Activities not part of job description  Supports organizational environment  Counterproductive Workplace Behavior (CWB)  Voluntary behavior violating significant organizational norms and threatening organization, its members, or both  Interpersonal deviance  Organizational deviance  Types of Actual Performance Behavior  Production (e.g., units per day)  Sales  Turnover  Absenteeism  Accidents  Manager ratings  CWB Actual Criteria o Theft  OCB Actual Criteria o Number of hours helping other employees 05/02/2016 06.56.00  05/02/2016 06.56.00 


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