Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes
Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes PSYC 2544
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
I-O Psychology Notes Week 4 05/02/2016 06.56.00 Job Analysis – Fundamental Properties and Practices Job Analysis: process that determines “essence” of a collection of tasks falling within the scope of a particular job title Why is Job Analysis important? How can it be used? You can write a better description of the job to help applicants understand the position they’re applying for Can be used for placement and promotion Employee selection Assess performance; rate employees, give them feedback, etc. o Can help to determine who does well o Define performance variable, measure performance Workforce reduction Criterion development Compensation Recruiting Training Job Analysis the “hub” of all HR interventions Three Key Components of Job Analysis 1) Organizational-oriented job analysis Determines needs and goals of organization; context – environment in the organization 2) Task-oriented job analysis Begins with statement of actual tasks and what is accomplished by those tasks 3) Worker-oriented job analysis Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks KSAOs: Worker Attributes Knowledge o Collection of discrete, related facts and information about a particular domain Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills) o Practiced act Ability o Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc. How Job Analysis is Done Interviews Surveys Observations 1) Observation Problems: subjective, you can miss things, hard to observe someone doing their job (a lot of it is thinking, making decisions, etc.) – you can’t get inside their heads; hard to observe most professional jobs, so this method is used less than others 2) Literature review/Previous research 3) Interviews Incumbents (people who are actually doing the job), supervisors 4) Critical incidents and work diaries Keeps track of significant events that can describe something that happened (critical incidents) 5) Questionnaires/surveys 6) Performing the job Doing the job yourself Interviews in Job Analysis Potential distorting influences in job analysis o Desire to make one’s job look more difficult o Attempts to provide answers that SME (Subject Matter Expert) thinks the job analyst wants o Carelessness Critical Incident A critical incident can be described as one that makes a contribution either positively or negatively to the job/organization A significant event or experience on the job Job Analysis: Newer Developments Electronic performance monitoring o Can be cost effective o Potential for providing detailed and accurate work log o E.g., “This call may be monitored for quality control purposes” Cognitive Task Analysis Methods for decomposing job and task performance into discrete, measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental process and knowledge content Think-aloud protocol o Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who achieve high levels of performance Time consuming and requires a good deal of expertise to do well Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis may be worthwhile: o Persistent performance problems o Costly errors or accidents o Training difficult to transfer to job behavior o Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance Summary of the Job Analysis Process 1) The more information gathered from the greatest number of sources, the better the job analyst can understand the job 2) Most job analyses should include considerations of personality demands, work context, and organizational goals Competency Modeling Identifies characteristics desired across all individuals and jobs within an organization Connects individuals with organizational viability and profitability Natural extension of job analysis logic, rather than a replacement Occupational Information Network (O*NET) Giant database of job analysis information for tons of jobs Introduced by the federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) Electronic medium, so it can be updated instantaneously as changes occur Job Analysis and Employment Litigation Competent job analysis does not guarantee validity, but absence of credible job analysis could be very damaging Growing gap between evolution of I-O Psychology and Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) SIOP principles (2003) are more updated and consistent with current research Job Performance Criteria Basic definitions: Performance: actions or behaviors on the job Effectiveness: evaluation of results of performance Productivity: ratio of effectiveness (output) to cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input) Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria Conceptual = theoretical construct, abstract idea Actual criteria = observed measures of criteria Objective criteria (e.g., records, sales numbers) Subjective criteria (e.g., manager ratings) Often there are problems with how job ratings and performance are evaluated Could be missing components Could be contaminated by other factors not having to do with the job (contamination) Conceptual Campbell’s Eight Factor Model 1) Task specific behaviors include those behaviors that an individual undertakes as part of a job – they are the core substantive tasks that delineate one job from another 2) Non-task specific behaviors are those behaviors which an individual is required to undertake which do not pertain only to a particular job o Example: a task specific behavior of a sales person might be showing a product to a potential customer, while a non-task specific behavior of a sales person might be training new staff members 3) Written and oral communication tasks refer to activities where the incumbent is evaluated, not on the content of a message necessarily, but on the adeptness with which they deliver the communication 4) An individual’s performance can also be assessed in terms of effort, either day to day, or when there are extraordinary circumstances o This factor reflects the degree to which people commit themselves to job tasks 5) Personal discipline – be in good standing with the law, not abuse alcohol, etc. 6) The degree to which a person helps out groups and his or her colleagues – this might include acting as a good role model, coaching, giving advice or helping maintain group goals 7) Many jobs also have a supervisory or leadership component – the individual will be relied upon to undertake many of the things delineated under the previous factor and in addition will be responsible for meeting out rewards and punishments 8) A managerial task would be setting an organizational goal or responding to external stimuli to assist a group in achieving its goals – in addition, a manager might be responsible for monitoring group and individual progress towards goals and monitoring organizational resources Task vs. Contextual Performance (OCB and CWB) Task Performance Requirements vary from job to job Individual differences tied to abilities and knowledge Activities part of job description Organizational Citizenship (OCB) Common to most jobs Individual differences tied to personality Activities not part of job description Supports organizational environment Counterproductive Workplace Behavior (CWB) Voluntary behavior violating significant organizational norms and threatening organization, its members, or both Interpersonal deviance Organizational deviance Types of Actual Performance Behavior Production (e.g., units per day) Sales Turnover Absenteeism Accidents Manager ratings CWB Actual Criteria o Theft OCB Actual Criteria o Number of hours helping other employees 05/02/2016 06.56.00 05/02/2016 06.56.00
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