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MUS 302

by: catherrinedoll

MUS 302 302

GPA 3.82

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These are the notes from the third week of the semester.
Music in World Culture
Class Notes
Music, World Cultures
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by catherrinedoll on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 302 at Humboldt State University taught by Novotney,ED in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Music in World Cultures  February 2, 2016  Rhythm continued.    ­there is a marriage between rhythm and motion  ­there is always static and dynamic energy in rhythm    Rhythm can be periodic or non­periodic    Periodic Rhythm: occurring at regular (and measurable) intervals  example: time on a clock, the calendar year    Non­periodic Rhythm: not occurring at regular (and measurable) intervals  example: breathing, ocean waves  *other cultures call this “breath rhythm”    *If you can tap your foot to it, it is probably periodic    Beat, Meter, and Tempo  (these terms are only applicable when referring to periodic music)    BEAT: a metrical pulse  ­when used correctly, this term refers to the main pulsations ​(what you would tap your  foot to) and ​ot the subdivisions    METER: the pattern in which steady succession of beats is organized  ­the most common patterns found throughout the world are groupings of two beats, three  beats, or four beats)    TEMPO: the rate of speed of the beats  ­time    DYNAMIC: (musical definition) volume from very soft to very loud    TIME: the duration of all existence    FORM: (universal definition)  ­most common forms are strophic or binary    Strophic: A  Binary: A A Folkloric Music: verse and chorus  A A’ or call and response  A B  February 4, 2016  Instrument Classification    Do you classify things? How?    Every musical sound has four common parameters:    1. Pitch (highness or lowness)  2. Dynamic (loudness or softness)  3. Duration (length in time)  4. Timbre (tone quality or “tone­color”)  *pronounces tam­ber    TIMBRE  ­What produced the sound?  ­What does this sound have in common with other things that sound similar to it?    As yourself this: What is unique about this sound that allows me n ​ot to confuse this sound with  all of the other sounds that I have heard in my life?    Example: When someone calls your name from behind you, we automatically go through filters  in our minds to recognize where we’ve heard that voice before.    Organology: the study of musical instruments  *very finite field of study    Brief history of instrument classification:  ­China  ­India  ­Europe      CHINA    PaYin System  yin: source of sound  ­translation: ”what source of sound”  ­developed about 2000 BCE  (before common era)    ­descriptive system with categories that describe the physical materials used to make the  instruments        Eight part system that had spiritual connotations to the eight winds or the eight directions    1. Metal  2. Stone  3. Silk  4. Bamboo  5. Gourd  6. Clay  7. Leather  8. Wood    Problems with this system?  Things are made out of different materials today and this form of grouping doesn’t work  in other cultures.      INDIA    Natyasastra System  ­described in the Natyasastra (Sanskrit Treatise)  ­developed between 2 BCE and 6 CE    ­descriptive system with categories that describe the nature of the instruments but not the  physical materials used to make them    Four part system describing how the instruments are made    1. Stretched meaning strings  2. Covered meaning covered  3. Hollow meaning wind instruments  4. Solid meaning instruments without many pieces (like a gong)   *something that is an instrument itself      EUROPE    ­instrument classification system first developed in the late 1800’s  ­by Victor Charles Mahillion  ­died before his work was done ­­ received no credit      Victor Charles Mahillion  ­son of a family of stringed instrument makers  ­became the curator of Brussels’ Conservatory Instrument Museum  ­tasked with cataloging many unusual instruments from Belgian colonies in Africa  ­used the instrument classification system of India as his basic model, but refined it    Mahillion passes ­­ leaves two protege German scholars  ­Erich von Hornbostel  ­Curt Sachs    *Mahillion did not come up with the actual names of the categories    Hornbostel & Sachs  ­described the nature of the vibration  ­provided a place for each of the world’s known instruments  ­provided a place for instruments not yet invented   *this is an acoustic system for acoustic instruments      Hornbostel & Sachs Classification System    1. Aerophone wind sounds  2. Chordophone string sounds  3. Idiophone self sounding  4. Membranophone skin sounds        


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