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Music in World Cultures Week 3

by: catherrinedoll

Music in World Cultures Week 3 302

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > Music > 302 > Music in World Cultures Week 3
GPA 3.82

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These are the notes from the week of February 8th to February 12th.
Music in World Culture
Class Notes
Music, World Culture
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by catherrinedoll on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 302 at Humboldt State University taught by Novotney,ED in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Music in World Cultures  February 9, 2016    Hornbostel & Sachs    ­Sachs toys with the term electrophone later in life  ­but it doesn’t match the other definitions because the sound is created through  electricity, not vibrations  ­someone else noted that technically all amplified sound could fit in the system under  membranophone    So keep in mind with electronic instruments, it really depends on where the sound is coming out    AEROPHONE: an instrument which produces sound by the vibration of air  Ways aerophones can be played:  ­free aerophone: like swinging a tube above your head  ­mouth hole: like flutes  ­lip vibrated: like brass instruments  ­reed vibrated: like harmonicas or oboes    CHORDOPHONE: an instrument which produces sound by the vibration of strings or chords  Ways chordophones can be played:  ­plucking: like pulling  ­strummed: like pushing  ­bowed: like a violin  ­struck: like a piano    Primary Subcategories:  1. Lute  2. Zither  3. Harp  4. Lyre (pronounced liar)    1.Lute qualifier: must have a body and neck  ­strings are stretched from the body to the neck  2. Zither qualifier: body  ­strings stretch from one end of the body to the other  3. Harp qualifier: body and triangular frame  ­usually three parts, strings are stretched from the body to the frame  4. Lyre qualifier: body, yoke, cross bar  ­strings stretched between the body and the crossbar supported by the yoke    *every stringed instrument come from the same anccestor which is the bow (imagine like an old  school bow and arrow, that type of bow)  *using the bow as an instrument stands as the first example of the concept of stored  energy of its’ time    IDIOPHONE: an instrument which produces sound by the vibration of a body (or itself)  ­this is the largest group out of the four  Ways idiophones can be played:  ­struck  ­shaken  ­clapped  ­bowed  ­scraped  ­plucked  ­rubbed    MEMBRANOPHONE: an instrument which produces sound by the vibration of a skin or  membrane  ­can be either DOUBLE HEADED or SINGLE HEADED  ­from there, they can be OPEN BOTTOMED or CLOSED BOTTOM  ­can be either FIXED TENSIONING or MECHANICAL TENSIONING  ­fixed tension instruments cannot be tuned  ­this does not mean that you cannot alter the pitch                February 11, 2016  Musical Texture    Remember to go further than the basic definition and really focus on what is making the sound    Tambourines ­ membranophone or idiophone?  ­depends on how you play it!    TEXTURE  Latin: textura ­ meaning “weaving”  from text ­ meaning “woven”    MUSICAL TEXTURE: the general pattern of sound created by the arrangement of the elemnts  of a musical work    ELEMENTS: the number of parts and the way those parts related to one another  ­number of parts in music = how many distinct things are going on  ­the way parts relate to one another = in cases where there is more than one thing going  on, is one of those things dominant?    DENSITY: how thick or thin  ­how many voices or instruments are generating each part?      Musical Texture  Is it single part or is it multi­part?    SINGLE PART MUSIC    1. MONOPHONIC: single part music  ­melody alone with no accompaniment  *associated with spiritual and religious music    2. HETEROPHONIC: single part music performed by two­or­more with slight variation  ­two or more versions of the melody being performed simultaneously, but not in  absolute unison    MULTI­PART MUSIC    3. HOMOPHONIC: multi­part music with ONE dominant part  ­melody with accompaniment    4. POLYPHONIC: multi­part music with no dominant parts    ­all parts are equal 


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